- J.S. Raglin, W.P. Morgan, P.J. Conner
- Behavioral Sciences
- Changes in Mood States during Training in Female and Male College Swimmers
This study tested the changes in moods during physical training for collegiate swimmers, both across genders and gender specific. Although moderate exercise has supported mental health benefits, the same is not true for higher intensity training, such as that often practiced by swimmers and track athletes. Additionally, it is unknown the effects of this training on other mood states such as anger, vigor, and fatigue. Raglan’s purpose in this experiment is to determine how when training is reduced, what happens with mood disturbances.
Varsity swimmers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison’s men’s and women’s teams all completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS), every 3 to 4 weeks throughout the training season. The men and women’s teams both completed similar workouts in order to keep constant the data POMS’ collected. For the beginning of the season, the teams started swimming around 3,000 meters a day and increased to a peak of 13,000 meters a day, and then back again to 3,500 meters a day towards the end of the season. After analysis, it was found that “total mood, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, and confusion changed in accordance with the training schedule for each of the seasons,” (pg. 2). For both females and males, as distance increased so did mood disturbance, however the “magnitude of the change differed among the mood factors,” (pg. 3). The only factor to not show change across the season was tension, as it remained constant throughout, and more elevated for females than males. Therefore, the results of this study concluded the following. During physical training during the season, swimmers of all genders experience similar mood state changes, and the data supports a correlation between these changes and the training volume, or distance swam for this sport. Lastly, tension is higher in females both before and during and throughout exercise, and is the only mood that remains the same no matter the magnitude of distance covered.
- Sean Cia
- Physical Educator
- Physical exercise and mental health: A content integrated approach in coping with college students’ anxiety and depression
- Spring 2000
This study tested different combinations of training exercises in three different groups in order to determine the effects on anxiety and depression after an 8-week conditioning program. Typical for college students, school related stress and lack of sleep are both leading lifestyle attributes that can lead to anxiety and depression. In turn, this may lead to drug abuse and skipping classes. However, despite readily accessible help on campus, “Substantial proportions of mentally ill students do not obtain treatment,” because of potentially having to face difficult personal problems (paragraph 3). Cai argues that by implementing relaxation exercises, such as yoga, tai chi chuan, and guided imagery, into physical education, there will be immense mental benefits. Tai Chi Chuan “is a physical and mental exercise characterized by slow, gentle and graceful movements that come from a continuous glow from one’s mind,” (paragraph 9). Therefore, Cai’s experiment’s purpose is to test the effects of mindfulness exercises on anxiety and depression relief.
71 college students were divided into four classes, two of which implementing guided imagery and integration respectively in conjunction with self-defense, and the third and forth solely with self-defense. During the last 15 minutes of the classes of the first two classes, students practiced their mindfulness exercises, while the other two continued their physical activity. The results of the study after 8 weeks indicated that the imagery and tai chi chuan groups had lower anxiety scores than the control groups, supporting his idea that these practices ease mental illness. However, after just one week there were no real benefits. Therefore, these valuable practices should not be ignored as practical ways to tackle college mental illness through physical education classes.
- Rosalyn Stoa, Jana Fogaça, and Logan Johnsen
- Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics
- Feel the Pressure: Stress and Intrinsic Motivation in Collegiate Swimmers
The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a correlation between stress and motivation in college level swim athletes. As a college athlete, motivation is a driving factor in wanting to compete at such a high level. However, as the stakes increase this motivation has the potential to turn into pressure and stress. Academic stress is an additional factor that student athletes must handle on top of their athletic lives. Although some argue that athletes are better equipped to deal with the mental struggles of stress, others disagree, as they may not want to use the resources that they have. Before the experiment, the following were hypothesized. First, changes in internal motivation can predict the same stress throughout the season. Second, Stress will peak just before winter break, and third, the relationship with the coach is a factor in motivation and stress during the peak of the swimming season.
163 people initially enrolled in the study, but only 108 of those were able to be included in the analyzing as they completed the necessary data collection tests. The tests were administered five times, and each contained a section with demographic material, a motivation scale, and a stress scale. After the season concluded, analysis did not support that motivation could predict stress levels, which was the first hypothesis. The second hypothesis was somewhat supported as “intrinsic motivation changed over the season in a quadratic manner, hitting its lowest point where stress was also at its highest,” (284). Although this study did not support the hypotheses, it does lend itself to the importance of continuing to use psychology and different techniques to help athletes and “prevent burnout and increase motivation when needed,” and often overlooked topic among sports (286).
- Herbert Simons, Derek Van Rheenen, and Martin Covington,
- Journal of College Students Development
- Academic Motivation and the Student Athlete
- April 1999
It seems with student athletes they have to find a balance between their academic studies and training schedule. These can add on extra pressure for athletes to find the perfect balances for their work. According to Herbert Simons, Derek Van Rheenen, and Martin Covington, in their article called “ Academic Motivation and the Student Athletes”, they talked about how stress from training and school can affect a students motivation to do their work. They conducted a study to see how student athletes deal with the pressure of their school work and training, and if there are any methods that they can do to improve there in academics and in their training. This study was done over the course of the school year from 1993 to 1994, student athletes at Un etsy of California, Berkeley were used to complete the study. They were given a survey to fill out at teams meetings that were based on their attire towards academics and athletics. At the end of the study, it was found that student-athletes that are success-orientated are more likely to die better academics than student-athletes that focus more on their athletics than their academics.
- Stephen J. Page
- The Sport Psychologist
- The Effects of imaginary on Female College Swimmer’s Perceptions of Anxiety
It seems that with the added pressure of being a college athlete can lead to anxiety or depression in an athlete. With this added pressure it can lead to bad performance in a training or a competition, while also having a negative effect on an athlete’s academic studies. According to Stephen J. Page, a sports psychologist who did a study on the “Effects of Imagery on Female college Swimmers’ Perceptions of Anxiety”. With this study he was able to form an understanding on how to help deal with anxiety. In Swimming it is an individual sport that will lead to a higher chance of precomptions anxiety, whereas with team sports that anxiety of computing is not as high. This is due to the idea that you are coming as a team, where swimming is realized off of the success that you have in the pool. Stephen J. Page, did a study of imagery that would help athletes deal with there anxiety, it was a year long study, where athletes took a baseline test on there anxiety when i comes to their sport, then after using imagery for over the course of the year, they took another test to see if there anxiety decrease or stayed the same. The result of the study showed that athlecs anxiety decreased but there was no way that this anxiety would be taken away onces the study was complete.