Hypothesis Proved?

Follow that? If ants truly gauge the distance they’ve traveled from the nest (and therefore the distance back to the nest) by counting their steps, then returning to the nest with longer legs means they would travel farther with each step, and hence . . . find themselves WAY past the nest by the time they stopped counting.

Just an example of how innovative thinking can result in a clever way to prove a hypothesis.


What evidence led the scientists to hypothesize that ants might be counting their steps? What observed behavior might indicate that was the case? Can you draw me a map of a nest and its surroundings that would demonstrate what the evidence might look like?

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Practice Opening – Rosekyd

Although the vaccine is meant to help, the people of Nigeria are still very skeptical of it’s effectiveness and it’s side effects. According to the article, vaccination teams were not only rude about handing out this vaccination but also all they had to offer was an oral vaccination, which raised a lot suspicion about contamination inside the vaccine. Rumors about AIDs and infertility drugs being inside the oral vaccine were spreading like wild fire to the point where in 2003 and 2004 four states banned the oral vaccine, raising the cases in 2006 of polio.

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White Paper-honeysucklelilac

Working Hypothesis

Eliminating the ability for fast fashion websites to exist in first world countries will cause more people to frequent thrift stores and therefore lessen the amount of clothes in landfills leading to a healthier environment.

Purposeful Summaries

Journal of Cleaner Production, Life cycle assessment of clothing libraries: can collaborative consumption reduce the environmental impact of fast fashion?

“Fast fashion” is a supply model meant to get trends to consumers as quickly as possible for the cheapest price. Trends are constantly changing, making the practical service life of the clothes being purchased much shorter than the technical service life. The clothes are being thrown away before they have been worn to their full potential. The clothes were inexpensive to begin with and therefore are thrown away without much thought, leading to a huge environmental impact.

One solution to lessen the environmental impacts of fashion and lengthen the practical service life of clothes is collaborative consumption. Collaborative consumption is consumers exchanging the ownership distribution of a resource for a fee or other compensation. This includes when a resource is borrowed, swapped, traded or rented. Collaborative consumption is part of the sharing economy.

Bahareh Zamani, Gustav Sandin, Greg M. Peters, Life cycle assessment of clothing libraries: can collaborative consumption reduce the environmental impact of fast fashion?, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 162, 2017, Pages 1368-1375, ISSN 0959-6526, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.06.128.

Governance of sustainable supply chains in the fast fashion industry

There are three important theories to look at when considering the sustainability governance framework; sustainability theory, corporate social responsibility (CSR) and supply chain governance (SCG).

Sustainability theory measures the performance of the fast fashion supply chain in its entirety. It focuses on the benefit maximization which is based on the balance among society, environment and economy. Sustainability means the development of products meets the needs of the current generation without negatively affecting the needs of future generations. The “Triple Bottom Line” of sustainability is used because it encompases the importance of economic, environmental and social performances. This forces corporations to change their objectives to no longer only focus on the economical aspects.

Corporate social responsibility is applicable when companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their businesses. CSR is consistent with social expectations, which increases the corporation’s benefits and also improves its competitiveness and reputation. There are 2 ways a company can benefit from when implementing a strong strategic CSR. First, they can receive long-term benefits through participation in social projects that communicate the relationship of CSR and the corporate strategy. Second, they will attract customers who pay more attention to the sustainable attributes of a product. Strategic CSR is an effective tactic to combine and facilitate the sustainability governance of the fast fashion supply chain.

Supply chain governance focuses on gathering resources of all participants in a supply chain.SCG focuses on the institution, the structures and the mechanisms that guide, regulate and control the activities which emerge from stakeholders of the supply chain. SCG is a framework for how decision making is carried out in a supply chain. The focal company can ensure the maximum benefit for all supply chain participants by coordinating them and focusing on the sustainability of the supply chain.

Yongjian Li, Xiukun Zhao, Dan Shi, Xiang Li,Governance of sustainable supply chains in the fast fashion industry,European Management Journal,Volume 32, Issue 5,2014,Pages 823-836,ISSN 0263-2373,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2014.03.001.

The motivational drivers of fast fashion avoidance

Environmental and Social Impact of Fashion: Towards an Eco-friendly, Ethical Fashion

There are several major environmental impacts that fashion causes. There are environmental impacts based on the different fiber production for both natural and synthetic materials. Polyester, elastic and Lycra are the most common fibers found in wardrobes. These fibers are cheap and their manufacturing causes pollution along with the issue that they are difficult to recycle.Spinning, weaving and industrial manufacture undermine air quality. Dyeing and printing consume vast amounts of water and chemicals, and release numerous harmful agents into the atmosphere.

The economy relies on consumerism which was brought forward during the industrialization era. Economic growth began to depend on the production of new products that were marketed in a way to make consumers dispose of the old ones. Stylistic norms and societal pressures made the old products seem obsolete. Ethical fashion requires collaboration between designers, manufacturers and consumers to address the impact of production processes and consumption patterns.

Mukherjee, S. (2015). Environmental and social impact of fashion: Towards an eco-friendly, ethical fashion. International Journal of Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary Studies, 2(3), 22-35.

Slow Fashion in a Fast Fashion World: Promoting Sustainability and Responsibility

Fashion is among the world’s most polluting industries: it requires large quantities of raw materials, creates high levels of pollution, leaves a significant carbon footprint, and generates copious levels of waste. The relationship between the fashion industry’s need to continually evolve to satisfy consumers’ insatiable desire to acquire the latest trends and the loss of exclusivity as consumers acquire the most popular garments, shows that the fashion industry is inherently opposed to sustainability.

A movement to combat fast-fashion has arisen known as slow fashion which places emphasis on more sustainable practices. This movement naturally promotes sustainability through more ethical sourcing and production techniques as well as by using organic, recycled, or more durable materials. The labor involved in the production of such garments receives higher wages and greater protection than those in the supply chain of the fast fashion industry. While finished garments may cost more, they last longer and incorporate more timeless styles to combat the need for only wearing the latest trends. While this movement faces a hard battle against mass marketed designs it is important to recognize that there are movements out there trying to compete with fast fashion. Companies that do slow fashion practices should provide a template for the future of the global fashion industry.

Brewer, M.K. Slow Fashion in a Fast Fashion World: Promoting Sustainability and Responsibility. Laws 2019, 8, 24. https://doi.org/10.3390/laws8040024

Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

On the platforms where the sharing economy is put into practice, people offer under-utilized goods that the consumers do not consume all the time and therefore have an excess. These consumers enter a positive-sum gain by lending or renting out their goods when they are not consuming them.

Collaborative consumption is an example of sustainable consumption because the consumer is avoiding the purchase of a first-hand consumption good. By using this method, the total number of goods in the economy can be reduced drastically without giving up consumer welfare.

Frenken Koen 2017 Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A.3752016036720160367

Current state of my research

While I am happy with the sources I was able to find, when I have time this weekend I would like to look further into more solutions to the environmental impacts of fast fashion. Most of what I have found so far is just what the environmental impacts are.

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Claims – rosekyd

To start off with the first claim I found in section six, This seems to be a moral/ethical or evaluative claim to me.

She is not, according to Brannan, “a normal, carefree six-year-old.”

This is mostly an evaluative claim because he’s claiming that after reviewing her own behavior he can confidently state that this girl is not a normal six year old. So now looking more into this I believe this is probably a evaluative claim.

Different studies of the children of American World War II, Korea, and Vietnam vets with PTSD have turned up different results: “45 percent” of kids in one small study “reported significant PTSD signs”; “83 percent reported elevated hostility scores.” Other studies have found a “higher rate of psychiatric treatment”; “more dysfunctional social and emotional behavior”; “difficulties in establishing and maintaining friendships.”

The is obviously a quantitative claim because of the way they are stating the claim with evidence from research.

When more rigorous controls were applied, there was no evidence for the intergenerational transmission of trauma.

I’d say that this is an evaluative because based off of the last paragraph which stated all of the evidence to make this claim, this is just a claim to confirm another question.

Holocaust survivors “had more resources and networks, wider family members and community to support them to adapt to their new circumstances after a war.” They were not, in other words, expected to man up and get over it.

I would put this as a more Casual claim because you can kind of see the cause and effect here. Because of the events that happened to these people and the community surrounding them to help them recover, of course they weren’t just expected to get over it just like that.

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White Paper- imgoingswimming

My Hypothesis: Electric cars do not truly run on clean energy as the source of their energy is not clean. Rushing to electric cars as the answer will not be the correct way to solve our problem although it does help.

Source 1). Gasoline Vehicle Phase out Around the World

Many States and Countries are planning on making electric cars the only buyable cars by 2035 or other times around that. New Jersey itself has passed a legislation that only electric vehicles will be sold by 2040. These goals are great for the environment but there are some downsides that people are not concerning themselves with. The line from where the electricity comes from to when it gets to your electric car is tainted. Many countries are planning on going to all electric vehicles by a certain date, but only British Columbia has actually passed legislation on a ban of the sale of new electric cars by 2040.

Source link: https://www.coltura.org/world-gasoline-phaseouts#:~:text=New%20Jersey%3A%20In%20October%202020,sales%20being%20electric%20by%202040.

2). Electricity in the United States.

While we look at electric cars as the future of clean energy they do not actually run on clean energy. In fact, in the United States cars only run on 17% renewable resources, 20% nuclear, 23% coal, and 38% natural gas if a person does not use solar. A car that runs on almost a quarter coal does not seem like it could be the future to me, but if can if this was to change. The percent of this renewable energy has been growing since the 50s and the diversity of these sources has also increased over time. Wind and solar have skyrocketed in popularity since the early 2000s.

Source link:The US energy administration- Energy consumption in the US

Source 3). Electricity usage in China

Energy Use in China is even worse as their energy usage is 59% coal, and second is 20% petroleum and other liquids. This means that these electric cars in China would run on 79% coal and fuel in China and this doesn’t account for energy lost as it makes its way to the vehicle. Coal usage was decreasing over several years, but in 2018 and 2019 it has started increasing this usage yet again. These vehicles are actually less efficient in China than in the United states. 

Source link:The US energy administration- Energy consumption in China

Source 4).Coal and the Environment

So what is the issue with coal? The issue with coal is that it causes much pollution such as emitting Sulfur dioxide which causes acid rain, Nitrogen oxides which cause smog and lung illness, carbon dioxide, and even mercury and heavy metals. This means that it is not just bad for the environment but also for us. This is the most concerning percentage of electricity production.

Source link:https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/coal/coal-and-the-environment.php

Source 5). Environmental impacts of Solar Power.

We can use other sources for energy such as solar, but these even solar has some drawbacks. Unlike wind that can share land for agriculture solar does not have this availability. The downside of solar is that it takes up land, they use a lot of water, and can use very hazardous chemicals that if not taken care of properly causes risks. This can be dangerous for workers making them as they can inhale silicon dust. Many safety precautions are put in place for the safety of the workers and making sure the products are disposed of safely. The pros outweigh the cons when it comes to solar energy, but people will have to realize more electricity will be used as more cars become electric making these solar farms having to grow largely in size to keep up. The diversity in energy is the best option as differing areas across the globe have different abilities to produce electricity because of their environment.

Source link: https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/environmental-impacts-solar-power#:~:text=The%20potential%20environmental%20impacts%20associated,solar%20thermal%20plants%20(CSP).

Status of Research.

I have already found many more sources for the topic of clean energy, and also how we will have to adapt/ build over the next decade. My main focus for the next five sources will be how much more energy we will have to produce in order to keep up with the larger demand of electricity. How will we build all these plants before 2035 and what kind of electricity should we focus on and where? There is no lack of sources on the matter of clean energy or information on our energy consumption, but there are not many talking about the awareness of electric vehicles not being run on majority clean energy. Much of my work is finding these dots and making connections which is going well.

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White Paper – rosekeyd

My Hypothesis:

Due to the natural tendency for humans to categorize, stereotyping has lead to strong prejudices and racism across America.

Weir, K. (2017, October). What’s at the root of racial stereotyping? Retrieved February 28, 2021, from https://www.apa.org/monitor/2017/10/stereotyping

Studies have shown that black Americans with more Afrocentric features, like as darker skin, coarser curlier hair and bigger lips, are more often perceived more negatively and more stereotypically than those with less Afrocentric features—even by members of their own racial group (Personality and Social Psychology Review, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2004).”If you bring it up in an interracial context, it can challenge majority [white] people’s idea that the world is a fair place. It upsets the status quo,” he says. “As a result, black people who bring up the idea often experience backlash. There’s this idea they are ‘playing the race card.” Because of all the negatives about stereotyping people often find themselves defending themselves when people challenge who they really are.

Zawisza, M. (2020, June 11). The terrifying power of stereotypes – and how to deal with them. Retrieved February 28, 2021, from https://theconversation.com/the-terrifying-power-of-stereotypes-and-how-to-deal-with-them-101904

Stereotyping has lots of negative effects on people of all cultures, races, sexual identity and age. There is a really high chance that heard these stereotypes because these are hard to avoid from a day to day basis. The simple solution would be just to avoid these negative thoughts but since it’s our human tendency to categorize almost anything this can be hard to disregard. “False beliefs about our abilities easily turn into a voice of self doubt in our heads that can be hard to ignore.”

Daisy GrewalNov. 26, 2., Paul BiermanJan. 21, 2., Saman RazaviJan. 7, 2., Elisabeth PainMar. 21, 2., & Leah H. Somerville, J. (2017, December 11). Reducing the impact of negative stereotypes on the careers of minority and women scientists. Retrieved February 28, 2021, from https://www.sciencemag.org/careers/2010/11/reducing-impact-negative-stereotypes-careers-minority-and-women-scientists#:~:text=Stereotypes%20also%20reduce%20the%20self,about%20his%20or%20her%20group

My paper is mainly focused on the impacts and developments of stereotyping and how that leads to racism and bad images for other races. Stereotypes are a huge part of social science because it impacts the mentality, self esteem and self image for lot’s of people, especially women. This article is focused on ways we can reduce these negative effect of stereotyping by keeping an open mind and trying to understand other peoples point of view. Of Course the world would be an easier place without this negativity but we can only try to get there one step at a time.

What are the causes of stereotypes? (2019, July 11). Retrieved February 28, 2021, from https://blogs.hope.edu/getting-race-right/our-context-where-we-are/the-history-we-inhaled/what-are-the-causes-of-stereotypes/

There are many factor that go into stereotyping which eventually leads to racism and other negatives ideas. Just simply knowing about different social groups often leads to stereotyping. Just the way humans tend to remember things seem to have labels on them to help us remember why it was significant in the first place. Of course there is the Illusory factor of how media and movies depict certain identities as an example or a joke, joking about these stereotypes is obviously not meant to be taken seriously but they leave a lasting impression on the viewer.

Overcoming racial STEREOTYPES // University Counseling Center // University of Notre Dame. (n.d.). Retrieved February 28, 2021, from https://ucc.nd.edu/self-help/multicultural-awareness/overcoming-stereotypes/

On the most basic level , it’s just human nature to categorize people. It’s the humans way of making a complex world much easier to comprehend without more thought. “Racial stereotypes are automatic and exaggerated mental pictures that we hold about all members of a particular racial group”. When people are stereotyped off of race most of the time we take into account any thoughts that don’t line up with what seems to be correct on these stereotypes about other racial group, again to make a complex world not so complex.

Current State of Research Paper:

I feel that my research paper is going pretty well right now. The reason I chose this topic is because it’s something that I’m passionate about and I have lot’s of ideas I can write the issue is that I just need the research to back it up. But I believe these sources are a great push for me to establish my thesis and make it sound legit.

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If / Whether

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White Paper – iwantpopsicle

Hypothesis: Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder are not dangerous, but are in need of special help and psychiatric care and shouldn’t be stigmatized by the public and healthcare professionals. 

Source 1: 

Borderline Personality Disorder

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in affect regulation, impulse control, interpersonal relationships, and self-image. The cause of this personality disorder is only somewhat known currently, but it seems to stem from physical, emotional, and sexual abuse as a child. About 1-2% of the general population is affected by this disorder, and about 10% of people with BPD commit suicide. This is a very high number of people considering how that number relates to the total number of individuals that have it. Individuals with BPD require significantly more mental health resources than those with other common mental health disorders, because BPD causes severe psychosocial impairment and makes it hard to live a normal, functioning life. 


Source 2:

The Lifetime Course of Borderline Personality Disorder

When people with BPD are not seen in a formal mental health treatment setting, they are often seen when in times of crisis. This leads people to believe that those with BPD are constantly in crisis and are never recovering. The truth is that while those with BPD do suffer intensely a lot of the time, their condition is proven to improve over time with proper treatment. BPD can be effectively treated with Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). Being that BPD stems from childhood trauma, it can be reliably and validly diagnosed in adolescence. Risk factors for developing BPD in adolescents include maternal-child discord, maternal BPD, and depression. In a 10 year study of 668 patients, researchers found that the patients had improved with their condition over the 10 year period while being treated. 


Source 3:

Effectiveness of Partial Hospitalization in the Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Researchers took 38 patients that were diagnosed with BPD and placed them into two different groups. One group received partially hospitalized care, while the other group received standard psychiatric care. The measures that they were looking for included frequency of suicide attempts and self harm, inpatient visits and their duration, depressive symptoms, anxiety, interpersonal function, and social function. At the end of the study, they found that psychoanalytically focused partial hospitalized treatment was significantly more effective than standard psychiatric care. Patients in the partially hospitalized group showed significantly less frequent self harm, and much improved depressive symptoms.


Source 4:

The Stigma of Personality Disorders

Borderline Personality Disorder is shown to be the most stigmatized mental disorder, and also has the most research related to its stigma. Individuals with mental illness are viewed to be at fault for their mental illness, and it is portrayed that they somehow choose to exhibit these symptoms. Despite efforts to combat this stigma, research shows that the situation has not improved over time, and people still continue to stigmatize the mentally ill. Some of those with personality disorders are afraid to seek treatment for their mental illness in order to avoid being labelled as “crazy”. This creates a very hard life for those who are struggling, as they are afraid to even get help in the first place. Those with BPD are shown to “self-stigmatize” and view themselves as insane, or unhelpable. This causes them to have great shame in their disorder and for their lives in general. Research shows that some psychiatrists may avoid telling their patient that they have BPD, in order to help them avoid stigmatization from the system.

Source 5:

Why go to the emergency department? Perspectives from persons with borderline personality disorder

Those with BPD are treated differently by healthcare professionals due to their diagnosis. Sulzer (2015) found that healthcare providers describe patients with BPD as “difficult” and a “pain in the ass”. They will stigmatize patients for the very behaviors that they are trying to correct, such as manipulative, attention seeking, and suicidal tendencies. These things are outside of the patient’s control, and they wouldn’t be in the doctor’s office if they could help it on their own. Those with BPD have a very limited ability to cope with intense emotions, and this can make them hard to treat. When they are blamed for these behaviors, it perpetuates the stereotype that those with BPD are just attention seekers and choose to act the way that they do. BPD is characterized with feelings of intense loneliness and fear of abandonment, so when healthcare providers make this worse by giving sufferers less than adequate service, it just exacerbates these awful feelings.

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My Hypothesis – rosekyd

  1. Stereotypes are one of the leading causes of racism in America
  2. Americans that show different features than the white American seem to suffer from Racism more significantly.
  3. In order to eliminate racial stereotyping Americans need to keep an open mind when in confrontation of racism.
  4. One of the keys to solving racial stereotyping is to keep an open mind and try not to categorize Americans into stereotypes which promotes racism.
  5. Due to the natural tendency for humans to categorize, stereotyping has lead to strong prejudices and racism across America.
Posted in My Hypothesis, rosekyd | 1 Comment

White Paper- Johnwick66

Hypothesis 1. Cancel cultures attempts to stop racism only further cement racial views in the people they target by crushing their futures in the name of social justice rather than try to educate them on the wrong doings of their actions , thus leaving behind in its wake a sea of destroyed lives with their racist thoughts now expanding rapidly since they are the only things left for them to cling to.

Hypothesis 2. Cancel cultures attempts to stop racism, while progressive in its results need heavy adjustments in their aftermaths, while these actions do allow for change to occur, the victimizers that are canceled need to be allowed to eventually reenter society with them being cancelled used as learning tool for them. By simply leaving them in the dust with nothing but their racist thoughts will lead to those thoughts expanding since they are the only things left for them to hold onto.

Hypothesis 3. Cancel cultures attempts to stop prejudice (racism, sexism, homophobia) only further cement those awful views in the people they target by crushing their futures in the name of social justice rather than try to educate them on the wrong doings of their actions , thus leaving behind in its wake a sea of destroyed lives with their radical thoughts now expanding rapidly since they are the only things left for them to cling to.

Note to self: make adjustment to hypothesis to include hate speech overall not just racism


Source 1: Brooks, David . 2019. “The Cruelty of Call-Out Culture.” New York Times, January 14. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/14/opinion/call-out-social-justice.html.

Background: The author of the article recalls a podcast that told the story of Emily, a member of a hard core punk band and how she basically disowned her bestfriend after an accusation was made about him. Only for her a few years later have the same scenario happen to her and she lost everything. Then how her accuser relishes in her pain and doesn’t care what happens to her next. The author then goes on to say how through these incidents society stops looking at these people like humans and more like the embodiments of good vs evil.

I find it counterintuitive how cancel culture is regarded as a way to push forth social justice and rights of the people, yet at the same time dehumanizes its victimizers. How just because of something we said(even if its messed up to say)automatically means that you should be stripped of everything you ever wanted/ had is, to say the least, quite extreme. Emily, the member of the hard-core punk band, was, through her own actions, made a unquie example from both sides of the fence. It was through her actions that her best friend(who at the time was accused of sending unwelcomed sexual photos) had his life basically ruined. He was forced to leave the punk scene, apparently lost his job, and has been living on hard times since. She did what she thought was right in regards to fighting for social justice. Yet the irony unfolds a mere few months later when Emily herself gets canceled for something she posted years ago. Then everything that she threw onto her ex friend now fell upon her. Even the dehumanization of her as a person, all because for a message she sent years ago.

Note to self: investigate the podcast behind the article: (NPR’s Invisibilia series ” The Callout”)

Source 2: “What is the cost of ‘cancel culture’?”BBC News. 2020-10-08. Retrieved 2021-01-06

Background: The article first covers the actions of Mr.Paulinich, a social media activist that regularly posts videos of people saying predijuce things in an attempt to cancel them. His account is gaining followers as more people come together in support. Then the article goes on discussing what cancel culture is and the effects of it on not only people, but companies and brands alike(aunt Jemima, Uncle Bens, Land o Lakes). Then finishes the article by discussing how the targets need to be able to make amends for their actions.

I find it counterintuitive how when they discuss when the cancelations of different people/ products the people who cancel those them act as if what they did really brought change in terms from the person they cancel. Like when Goya was cancelled for their chief executive praising former President Trump, do you honestly think cancelling them will change that man views on Trump. Or like how when people get exposed and cancelled online for the things they said, even if what they did was wrong, is destroying their life the best way to go? Especially if after their messed up remarks are going to be the only thing they have left. The idea that the canceled can’t make amends for their mistakes doesn’t feel accepting but rather authoritative.

Source 3. Huffman, E. M. (2016). Call-out culture: How online shaming affects social media participation in young adults (Order No. 10120833). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1795577817). Retrieved from http://ezproxy.rowan.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.proquest.com%2Fdissertations-theses%2Fcall-out-culture-how-online-shaming-affects%2Fdocview%2F1795577817%2Fse-2%3Faccountid%3D13605

Link: Call-out culture: How online shaming affects social media participation in young adults – ProQuest (rowan.edu)

The text is about call out culture and how online shaming affects young adults and how the participate in social media. Social media is filled with lurkers. (People who use social media but don’t post on it) about 90% of social media users are lurkers. The paper then went into detail how shaming has been used by humans dating back to the creation of the bible. This document is around 61 pages long so I still have quite a bit to read through.

I find it counterintuitive how social media is made as a platform for people to find their voice, however only about 10% of it’s users actually post on these sites. The remaining 90% (also know as lurkers) specifically only follow the guideline of look don’t touch. It’s hypothesized that the reason most people follow this rule is due to how frequently people get publicly shamed on these platforms due to things they either say or post.

Source 4: Trottier, D. (2018). Coming to terms with shame: Exploring mediated visibility against transgressions. Surveillance & Society, 16(2), 170-182. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.rowan.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.proquest.com%2Fscholarly-journals%2Fcoming-terms-with-shame-exploring-mediated%2Fdocview%2F2138979618%2Fse-2%3Faccountid%3D13605

Link: Coming to Terms with Shame: Exploring Mediated Visibility against Transgressions – Criminal Justice Database – ProQuest (rowan.edu)

The text is a “report” on public shaming and its creation, use in todays society, what exactly it is and if we overstep our boundaries with it. It also covers and distinguishes the differences between social/public shaming and shaming in a parent/child relationship and how they aren’t similar and that through today’s social media the shaming of our “transgressors” is out of proportion to the actions committed.

I find it counterintuitive how people will take to social media publicly in order to shame others for their actions, but then at the same time dehumanize the person at question in order to feel justified in their treatment of the transgressors. Even most state governments believe these actions are an unnecessary overreach of public punishment and try to go out of their way to try to minimize shame and shaming’s.

Source 5: Aitchison, G., & Meckled-Garcia, S. (2021). Against Online Public Shaming: Ethical Problems with Mass Social Media. Social Theory & Practice47(1), 1–31. https://doi-org.ezproxy.rowan.edu/10.5840/soctheorpract20201117109

Link: Against Online Public Shaming: Ethical Problems with Mass Social Media: EBSCOhost (rowan.edu)

Based off what I’ve read so far, the article covers how the mass online gatherings of people who desire to ruin the life of someone that did or said something they didn’t agree with and how even though the people who said/did the thing may be wrong in what they did, that doesn’t make it justifiable in how their lives are basically ended by these crowds.( Still reading through it, its about 32 pages. So I’ll more as I continue to read through.)

I find it counterintuitive how people find it so necessary to destroy peoples lives for saying things that they don’t agree with and reducing them to simply unworthy characteristics and and personalities that are then stripped of certain human relationships. Only to then talk how we as people must be more kind and accepting to one another. How can you go from one state of mind to another so rapidly?

Short Arguments

Definition/classification Argument”

Cancel culture, possibly one of if not the biggest miss use of social media. Where people lives can be terminated in a matter of minutes. With the rise of social media, the world is more connected than ever, people from all over capable of communicating as if the other person is simply across the street. Along with this kind of tech comes a new profound power. The ability to cancel (a form of shaming) anyone for saying/doing something the public doesn’t agree with. With this kind of power the people could use it for good in order to help bring change. But instead we use it to burn normal people’s lives for nothing more than shits and giggles. Instead of bringing change like we could, we’d rather destroy the lives of relatively innocent people for what, social justice? Please tell me what does the destruction of people’s lives do that help make that person better in terms of prejudice? It doesn’t, if anything it makes it worse by now basically forcing those people to hug onto their bad remarks/actions since they’d be the only thing left for them.


It’s this weird common idea that we make the world a better place by cancelling people who say and do awfully predejuce things. That by destroying their lives in terms of their job, friends, and family, we somehow benefit society. Honestly though it couldn’t be farther from the truth. Through these actions we only deepen the thoughts these people have in regards to race, sexism, homophobia, etc by giving them a scape goat in terms of why they are in that situation. especially since after these people are publicly shamed they are left behind, they aren’t allowed to have any kind of redemption for their actions. But rather its like they are locked into this scenario that they are these dehumanized pieces of garbage that no one cares for anymore. What do expect to happen to these people when they are stripped of everything except their remarks with no real chance to right their wrong? Simple, they embrace the only thing they are known for and make it apart of them. This can be seen with the man known gypsy crusader (look for documents on him in order to help my case)


Not everyone who gets canceled loses everything. look at celebrities like Morgan Wallen, who are doing fine after their incident.

True, their are certain scenarios where people may recover and be fine following them being cancelled but these are one rare and two typically only happen for celebrities, political figures, and the rich. However the same cannot be said for the common folk, we don’t have money or power to make these kind of situations go away. If some random citizen were to get cancel tomorrow, they wouldn’t be able to protect themselves from the rather large backlash that would be bound to come for them.

Current status on my research:

I’m going to be very frank about it, I’m having trouble in terms of my research. Cause the information I find in regards to my topic don’t really cover it. Plus most of it is more opinionated than factual which I find troublesome in terms of finding decent sources. Also I feel as if I need to work on my topics for smaller papers more. I know I’ll need to expand on them more but I’m not sure if they are in the direction I want them to be in.

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White Paper- Thecommoncase

Working Hypothesis

The legalization of medical marijuana in the United States could stop the opioid crisis in its tracks by lowering the number of innocent people killed due to overdose by replacing prescription opioids in the pharmaceutical industry with medical cannabis altogether and using it to aid struggling addicts in a safe environment.

The legalization of medical marijuana in the United States could stop the opioid crisis in its tracks by lowering the number of innocent people killed due to overdose by gradually replacing prescription opioids with medical cannabis and using it as a harm reduction strategy for opioid dependents.

Purposeful Summaries

A Scoping Review of the Use of Cannabis and Its Extracts as Potential Harm Reduction Strategies: Insights from Preclinical and Clinical Research

It may seem counterintuitive to give hospital patients an illegal substance, but marijuana has shown to be quite effective in helping people with physical ailments. Marijuana’s ability to stimulate appetite has been beneficial to patients struggling with cancer-related anorexia or AIDS. It has also shown efficacy in decreasing inflammation for patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Doctors and researchers are pushing to make marijuana as a harm reduction strategy more common. For someone struggling with drug addiction, it is extremely difficult to stop cold turkey. By using marijuana as a harm reduction, an addict will receive medicinal marijuana to soothe the grueling process of substance withdrawal. This method has been used before with methadone as the harm reduction, and heroin. Methadone would decrease severe withdrawal symptoms in people with a heroin addiction.

Marijuana as a HRS has been used to treat patients who have an opioid dependency and neuropathic pain. In an experiment using animal models, marijuana positively intervened in opioid withdrawal and even relapse.

There have already been cases where medicinal marijuana as a HRS has been used on actual patients, as well. Depending on the state, and if a doctor prescribes it, medicinal cannabis can be distributed to patients in the United States. But unfortunately, since marijuana is classified as a Schedule I drug, it is difficult for researchers to obtain access to the drug to test its capabilities as a harm reduction drug.

Source Cited

Siklos-Whillans, J., Bacchus, A. & Manwell, L.A. A Scoping Review of the Use of Cannabis and Its Extracts as Potential Harm Reduction Strategies: Insights from Preclinical and Clinical Research. Int J Ment Health Addiction (2020). https://doi-org.ezproxy.rowan.edu/10.1007/s11469-020-00244-w

A safer alternative: Cannabis substitution as harm reduction. 

In order to help people who are addicted to drugs, substitution and harm reduction strategies are being used. With substitution, a patient is given an alternative drug that is less addictive than the one they are currently abusing. Substitution is a common method used in harm reduction strategies, since some addicts do not see full sobriety as a realistic goal.

For many years marijuana has been called a “gateway drug,” suggesting that it leads to other, more harmful substances like opioids, cocaine, and heroin. But the use of marijuana as a harm reduction strategy says otherwise. The substitution of a substance with cannabis has shown to be an effective way to wean addicts of their harmful drug. In a study conducted on Jaimaican women who were addicted to crack, marijuana was used to lessen the amount of crack smoked. The researchers found that cannabis was the most effective and accessible drug used as a substitution for crack smoking. In studies involving alcohol abusers, they claimed that it lessened the effects of cravings and withdrawal. Marijuana was able to relax the participants and help with restless sleep and pain relief.

Marijuana is becoming a popular drug to use as a substitute for various types of people who are dependent on drugs. Patients at a cannabis dispensary in California claimed to use marijuana as a substitute for drugs like prescription pills and alcohol.

Source Cited

Lau, N., Sales, P., Averill, S., Murphy, F., Sato, S., & Murphy, S. (2015). A safer alternative: Cannabis substitution as harm reduction. Drug & Alcohol Review, 34(6), 654–659.

Medical Marijuana for Treatment of Chronic Pain and Other Medical and Psychiatric Problems

The use of marijuana as a medical treatment is still new ground for the United States, and people are still wary of its popularity, since it is still considered to be a Schedule I type drug. The legalization of marijuana has caused an overall increase in marijuana use, and doctors would like to conduct more research on the potential medical uses of cannabis. 

At the moment, only two cannabinoid types are approved by the FDA. These treatments are used alongside chemotherapy for cancer patients dealing with nausea or to stimulate appetite. But high quality clinical trials have yielded positive results, and suggest that medical marijuana can help with more than just anorexia and nausea.

Next to using medical cannabis for cancer patients, the next most common use for medical marijuana is for chronic or neuropathic pain. Out of 12 trials, there were multiple positive results that encouraged the use of medical marijuana for chronic and neuropathic pain. In an article published by the American Academy of Neurology, a list of guidelines for medical marijuana use claimed that the most effective results are found when the cannabis is taken orally, like in a pill form.

But since cannabis is still not completely federally approved, it cannot be distributed through pharmacies, and is not readily available to those who need it. FDA approved medical cannabinoids can be prescribed, but are not available for things like chronic pain. With more research being conducted, more positive results are showing, which could change the current FDA standings on medical cannabis.

Source Cited

Hill KP. Medical Marijuana for Treatment of Chronic Pain and Other Medical and Psychiatric Problems: A Clinical Review. JAMA. 2015;313(24):2474–2483. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.6199

Mental health functioning and severity of cannabis withdrawal among medical cannabis users with chronic pain 

At a medical marijuana dispensary in Michigan, a study was conducted on people who use medical marijuana for chronic pain. A majority of the participants in the study use cannabis at least once a week, and claim that they do experience withdrawal symptoms.

In the study, more than seventy-five percent of the participants stated that they would have trouble sleeping, lose their appetite, or become anxious when they were not using medical cannabis. The severity of withdrawal symptoms correlates with how high functioning a person’s brain is, but continuous heavy cannabis use can deter the functions of the brain.

Although, since the participants were also dealing with chronic pain, that could also play a role in the severity of withdrawal symptoms. If a person’s chronic pain is intense, then it makes sense that patients would be taking larger amounts of cannabis. Marijuana withdrawal can lead to functional impairments, but does not have a large physical effect. Chronic pain causes both functional and physical impairments, making it difficult for a person to stop taking their cannabis medication.

Source Cited

Brian E. Perron, Katlyn R. Holt, Emily Yeagley, Mark Ilgen, Mental health functioning and severity of cannabis withdrawal among medical cannabis users with chronic pain,  Available online 6 November 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.09.029. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376871618307786

Topic for Definition Argument: “Harm Reduction”

Topic for Causal Argument: Cessation of drug use causes withdrawal.

Topic for Rebuttal Argument: The use of drugs as treatment against another drug will just make that person addicted to a different drug.

Current State of Research Paper

At the moment, I can say that I am feeling more level-headed about this paper the more I work on it. Once the professor told me about harm reduction, it made me feel as though I could actually make this paper make sense. But I am still feeling a bit anxious about putting all of my information together. Getting rid of opioids altogether does not seem achievable in the slightest, so I will have to change my hypothesis once again. But overall, the research I am finding makes me confident that at least half of my idea is not completely ridiculous.

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