Bibliography-Aquarela

1. Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., Dodge, K. A., & Ridge, B. (1998). Interaction of temperamental resistance to control and restrictive parenting in the development of externalizing behavior. Developmental Psychology, 34(5), 982–995. Retrieved December 11, 2020, from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.rowan.edu/docview/614328930?accountid=13605&pq-origsite=primo

Background: Child temperament and parental control were studied as interacting predictors of behavior outcomes in 2 longitudinal samples.

How I Used It: This article offers a good overview of the lack of affection in children by parents and helps readers understand its consequences better. It also emphasizes a fact that I wanted my readers to know, that emotional neglect’s consequences can be severe, such as life-long neurological impairment.

2.Glaser, D. (2002). Emotional abuse and neglect (psychological maltreatment): A conceptual framework. Child Abuse & Neglect. Retrieved December 11, 2020, from https://www-sciencedirect-com.ezproxy.rowan.edu/science/article/pii/S0145213402003423

Background: Covers the place of emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment within the overall context of child abuse and neglect.

How I Used It: Glaser’s study shows interesting results about emotional neglect and its consequences. Though her study realized in different countries, she was able to compare emotional neglect to other types of abuse. She observed considerable evidence about its brain damage, such as functional problems and changed brain structures. I think her research is a good support to what I wanted to say in my research paper.

3.Kaya, Nihan. 2018. There are no good families. Ithaki. Retrieved December 16, 2020, from https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/41879768-i-yi-aile-yoktur

Background: Contains the ideas of Nihan Kaya about parenting, being children and emotional struggles. This book offers a different perspective to help people discover the reasons behind many things about themselves, such as why we suffer, why we want to be loved, why we postpone our work, etc.

How I Used It: In her book, Kaya points out different ideas about childhood traumas and says that there are no good families. She defends one of the ideas that I brought up in my research by saying that all families struggle, and it’s never easy to be a child. She is one of my favorite authors, and defends children rights. I believe that mentioning her work helps my readers understand that emotional abuse is a common thing and my intention was not to blame parents.

4.Lacharité, C., L. S. Éthier, and P. Nolin. 2006. Vers une théorie écosystémique de la négligence envers les enfants. Bulletin de psychologie. Retrieved December 11, 2020, from https://www.cairn.info/revue-bulletin-de-psychologie-2006-4-page-381.htm?contenu=article

Background: The article aims to describe a theoretical model of neglect. The first part presents the main issues raised by the act of defining child neglect and proposes a definition for making a diagnosis of these situations. The second part proposes an etiological model of neglect. The third part takes stock of the multiple consequences of neglect.

How I Used It: This article shows the importance of children’s living environment and how emotional neglect can cause physical consequences including mortality. I think it was important to cite a work that shows a heavy consequence, especially about an issue that has been ignored a lot.

5.Pianta, R., Egeland, B., & Erickson, M. F. (1989). The antecedents of maltreatment: Results of the Mother-Child Interaction Research Project. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (p. 203–253). Cambridge University Press. Retrieved December 11, 2020, from https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1989-98324-007

Background: It presents a summary of the results of research conducted on the antecedents of child maltreatment by the Mother-Child Interaction Research Project at the University of Minnesota, which was specifically designed to address these issues / this is a prospective, longitudinal research program that has employed a multivariate measurement strategy to examine the antecedents and consequences of child maltreatment in a sample of mothers selected for being “at risk” for poor parenting etiological factors in child maltreatment, child characteristics, characteristics of the environment, the selection of an appropriate integrative model for research on the antecedents of child maltreatment.

How I Used It: Through a reliable test that was used in this study, It was possible to measure the children’s development, including cognitive and socio-emotional development. A significant difference was found between the children that were emotionally abused and not emotionally abused. I believe this work was really meaningful for my research since it offers a measurable comparison to its readers.

6.Miller, Alice. 1991. Breaking down the wall of silence: the liberating experience of facing painful truth. New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Dutton. Retrieved December 11, 2020, from https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/1929787.Breaking_Down_the_Wall_of_Silence

Background: In her book, Miller incorporates psychohistorical analysis of Hitler, Stalin, and Ceausescu to reveal the links between the horrors of their childhoods and the horrors they inflicted on the world. She pleads for an awareness of society’s role in child abuse and for recognition of the victim.

How I Used It: Alice Miller uses her own experiences in her books and too often admits the fact that she was not a good mother to her child. Through her own experiences, she brings up important aspects of being an emotionally abused child. She bravely says that our society gives parents the freedom of abusing their own kids and no one interrupts when it occurs. I think her point of view can help readers realize some simple facts that we are familiar with, but don’t see as abuse.

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Researched Position Paper – bluntwriting88

Researched Position Paper

The United States is in currently in the midst of an extremely high stakes gamble. A technological gamble that makes the U.S. vulnerable to an Electro Magnetic Pulse (EMP) attack. Much evidence, data, and record exists to show with no discretion the fragile and dilapidated power grid built decades ago, left in disrepair, and in a perfect position to be totally subverted. The situation for America only gets worse the defense programs, along with the economy and most of modern society, would be rendered useless if an EMP were to detonate over America. An EMP ionizes the air and disables all electronic equipment within a U.S. sized area.  This places the U.S. in a very unstable position and currently applies a catastrophic risk to American society. The technological investments currently in America are insufficient to combat an EMP , and not enough care is being taken into mitigating this major risk which leaves every single American reliant upon electricity and electronics in a powerless and unstable position.

In physics and engineering, stability is referred to a trend of a system which returns or tends to its normal value. Instability is when slight changes cause a large change in the system. In historical terms destabilization is a recurring theme in terms of societal collapses. If an unstable system is destabilized, then disaster promptly follows. Modern American society in this technological sense is very unstable, though this also has a social component. Many simple examples exist to illustrate America’s instability. Our water systems, road systems, internet (and thereby a plethora of other dependent systems such as food supply, which includes digital refrigeration), and medical, just to name a few, are unstable in their current national linking and design. In investigating instability, only a small change in few or one of the variables is necessary to see a significant catastrophe. A disruption due to war or terrorism are a few of many very possible disruptions which can lead to national life support system failure. Many may define the U.S. as the most powerful complex interconnected system operating on a global scale. However, the U.S. is behind in terms of secondary ‘back ups’ and infrastructure. The consequences for this may prove to be disastrous in the future.

 Much study has been done to show the modeled outcomes of an EMP over the United States, disabling all electronics and thereby all the national life support systems. Anything such as laptops, phones, banking, and thermostats would be rendered obsolete. Much of this is due to archaic, decaying, or inadequate technological infrastructure pervading many of the life support systems in America. The systems are unstable as they cannot withstand an attack or disruption on a mass-scale. All the devices which we use on a constant basis to survive are one bomb in the sky away from becoming fancy pieces of metal. Power outages from simple storms can result in loss of power and anxiety for days on end. The real possibility of an EMP attack would be a storm power outage scenario but orders of magnitude higher in severity, as indicated by the Department of Homeland  Security.

 Unimaginable consequences would occur simply from large scale loss of the interconnected power grid. Hurricanes and Storms already do an absurd amount of damage yearly. It would not be difficult for an angry foreign power to incapacitate America via technological (or biological) means. As our lives are dependent and built around receiving power and powering all of our means of sustenance, it is clear to see the very fine line we live on at all times. The line is fine and unstable the same reason a tightrope walker is unstable when performing his act. And that is that there is no other balance point or safety net. In its current state, America’s technological infrastructure does not have a safety net if it were to be specifically targeted. The result of being on such a fine line is that the regular lives of Americans can cleverly be ‘powered off’ completely with no alternative or backup mechanism.

What is worse is that the economy is digitized, leaving it vulnerable along with our power grid. Such is our technological infrastructure when it is coupled. A collapse in the dollar would be a collapse of society as we know it. This is since its digital nature is not backed up and fail-safe’d. This is one major manifestation of an instability. As the saying goes, money is what makes the world go round. It is almost trivial and unnoticeable to many the dependence of money on technological power (as the financial system is all digital). This is akin to vital organs being interdependent on one another. But unlike the body has protective features to maintain homeostasis, the interdependent systems in America do not have a developed protection backup and that is what makes it very unstable. The very basis of American hegemony rests upon the economy and the value of the dollar. Not only that, but also the means for the population to acquire its resources lies on a very thin line. It is not impossible for such a vital collapse to occur. If it were, society would devolve in a state of pure destruction and anarchy, with citizens left to fend for themselves and somehow – without power – attempt to acquire their resources against competition, like something out of Mad Max.

Societal disruption also has demonstrably shown its chaotic effects and thereby an inherent societal instability, which partly has roots in technological instability. The American reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic produced a significant economic disruption, particularly in unemployment numbers. As a chaotic response ensued the pandemic, it is clear to see American health and bureaucratic institutions were not armed or prepared to tackle the pandemic in a less chaotic fashion – an instability. With any disruption it is reasonable to expect some negative feedback and resistance. However, when America was put to the test, a large destabilization in employment ensued. Many other nations did not experience the deep negative impacts of the pandemic as America did, “The unemployment rate in May might have been as high as 16% by the U.S. Government’s estimate” compared to the U.K.’s 4.1%. Preparedness is stability, and instability is chaos.

Stability is preparedness. Against an EMP, or a health crisis, there is no clear plan for America for those events. Time after time many warnings have been made regarding these types of disasters. There is the problem of funding, as always of course. However, the cost of unemployment and lack of food is far greater in terms of its impacts. By example America does not possess coordinated plans of action for many vital systems pertinent to the survival of the whole population.

With many other developed nations investing and developing for preparedness and the future, a comparison can be made with America. America, for most of its vital systems which run the machine, instead of preparing and resolving current instabilities in its techno-social structure, has to focus on maintaining the tightrope walk between proper function and impending disaster.

A massive major storm taking out power to an entire swathe of the U.S. has the capability of leaving thousands without electricity for multiple weeks due to the slow moving and old power grid and response mechanisms. Contrastingly, an electromagnetic pulse were to detonate over the middle of America, all the population’s means of communication, power, refrigeration, economy, and society would be at full mercy to the ionization of the particles in the air.  It doesn’t take a particularly foreign threat to do much damage to the U.S. population. Despite the development of physical understanding and technologies, America is in this energetically vulnerable position due to lack of investment in improved energy transport infrastructure, specifically the electric power grid. There is much physics and engineering which allows for electromagnetic shielding, and there is also much literature and work done on improving operational procedures regarding our electrical power system. The only question is whether the U.S. government is prepared to being a serious and sophisticated analysis, reevaluation, monetary investment, and improvement upon the current existing infrastructure. Disinterest and funding shortfalls threaten America’s power grid as never before.

America has almost zero defensive and counter-threat infrastructure against EMP’s, which render electromagnetic devices useless according to BMC. America can be fragmented and destroyed simply from disabling digital devices. Any foreign power with nuclear weapons can create an EMP over America. Power plants, substations, lines, devices, etc. would ultimately be severely damaged or obliterated by hostile foreign nations. Now more than ever the solution should be clear to scientists, engineers, the rest of the world, and America.

When one steps outside in America to examine the powerlines, it is hard to find any significant change at all since they were first erected. The only time we ever hardly see anything different or a replacement is during power outages. The antiquated delivery systems for electricity are only one such example of lack of interest and investment from the government. Powerlines, most of which are 30 years old, have not received investment since their inception. It would take a massive national effort and trillions of dollars to alter and re-engineer the dilapidated power grid. That is to say, the desperate changes America needs will not happen anytime soon, which only perpetuates the looming danger of losing society as we know it.

Many power plants were created during the post war boom following WWII. Yet, while WWII veterans become increasingly hard to come by, it is without scarcity to find a power plant dating to the 1940’s. so much so that the American Society of Civil Engineers gave the entire energy infrastructure a barely passing grade of D+ for all the United States. That is truly astounding considering electricity and its delivery is the literal powerhouse of our modern industrialized society. The U.S. government’s lack of interest, improvement, and investment in the power grid means that the state of our power systems has equivalently become a deteriorated and dilapidated relic with an increasing number of yearly problems.

                  As a matter of fact, America’s vulnerability and lacking in the energy sector currently ends up costing more money to supply electricity to millions of homes. If only investment would be made in changing or improving upon the power grid, then the investment would have a very good justification. So here a new vulnerability for America is created from the disinterest of change and funding: the vulnerability of American energy on the world market.  Americans paying more for outdated power delivery simply because the infrastructure has not been maintained or updated properly hurts the American economy, but most importantly and principally, Americans which are paying for electricity at the ‘archaic’ price level.

Americans are still living in the shadow of development and technological progress while utilizing dilapidated and unprotected electric devices and power transmission. As is usually the case, lack of money is the issue. A lack of interest for investment in  such a large and indispensable component of the American Machine is extremely dangerous, as all of the unshielded circuits which are abstracted away from us but inside everything we use are one short circuit away from complete inutility which implies the worst for America. All which Americans rely on that is nowadays fully electronic is what fuels and supplied energy, power, even commerce according to The Economist, and communication. For these reasons

            Many would be surprised to hear that the United States, the most powerful and prominent military force and authority on the planet, is in fact one of the most vulnerable nations on Earth to this very specific kind of attack. That is, an Electromagnetic pulse to wholly cripple the power grid, all electronic devices, and everything else in between that depends on the flow of electricity – one of those being the U.S. economy. There are many factors to consider when contemplating or modelling the likelihood and motivation for an EMP attack. While many would agree direct attacks such as nuclear approach impossibility in their likelihood, an EMP attack is actually a less-direct attack that would in fact disarm the United States from an adequate and defensive response due to the digital nature of our integrated defense systems at present, and is therefore a highly plausible and very possible situation.
            As Ariel Cohen remarked in  Forbes, it is already well established  that America does not have proper preparation for an EMP attack that could disable national electronic and digital devices, of which everything essential running the American system is dependent upon. There also currently exist a plethora of fresh threats to American sovereignty, such as Iran, Russia, and China, among many which have an arsenal of nuclear weapons. Any nuclear bomb detonated in the atmosphere rather than via ground-impact can be utilized as an EMP with ranges as large as the area of the U.S. Such nations that do possess nuclear weapons thereby may utilize them as EMP’s against America. A detonated EMP in the atmosphere over the target region will ionize the particles in the air such that any electronic device will instantly short circuit due to the air present in them.  Many will claim that nuclear attacks against the major nation America is simply not in the realm of possibility. However, the only seed necessary for the possibility to exist is negative dispositions and views of America held by hostile individuals and nations, which we certainly know exist in abundance. We also encounter the argument of mutual destruction. The classic argument of mutual self-destruction due to nuclear weapons usage does not apply to the situation of a potential EMP strike on America. An EMP is not a direct attack such as a warhead is. An EMP is a weapon in that it drastically changes the electromagnetic field over America. While no physical damage will occur, the induced drastic alteration of the EM field over America will instantly disable all electronic devices. For mutual destruction to be possible, retaliation would need to be encountered when an EMP strikes. However, American defensive maneuvers and systems will not be able to function as they are electrically operated as well supplied by an outdated power grid. A ‘mutual’ interaction between forces, attacker and U.S., would not occur due to the EMP. A Defense Technical Information Center paper from 1996 stated that EMP technology has matured to the point where their practical and very feasible usage allows for non-nuclear confrontations. Here there would be no possible mutual destruction on a nuclear basis.

As discussed, it is clear that anyone can establish a basis for desiring damage to America, such as the case with hostile powers. It is much more logically preferable to disable every mechanism of retaliation and defense (of America), which would also harm all major supply and food lines along with the economy, and to engage in a more direct warfare or attack after said defense capabilities are rendered null. This can simply be done with a single nuclear bomb detonated a mere 25 miles above in the atmosphere – less that a short family trip away. The alternative to an EMP by definition can only involve confrontation and therefore retaliation. For such actors that wish to cause harm to America, the EMP option is real, smoother, and superior. An EMP blast’s effects could linger hours to days. According to the Economist, North Korea already has developed a hydrogen nuclear bomb which they mentioned could be specifically employed as a High Altitude EMP. North Korea’s attitude towards the U.S. in the recent years has been extremely volatile, unfriendly, and provocatory. It would only take one EMP attack to leave the U.S. in an open position to be readily attacked. Furthermore, a 1992 paper by Carl E. Baum, fellow of IEEE, notes how EMP technology is possessed by most major industrialized nations. A door to an EMP attack is open, and that is a risk which should not be merely held over America’s head.

 For the discussed reasons, the threat of retaliation from the U.S. is thereby little danger to a hostile actor. It is certainly true that such an EMP attack has never been attempted on such a large nation. However, this can be due to a variety of factors like globalization, lack of speed in EMP’s and simply lack of necessary tension in order to rigger such a chain of events. Yet we know from history that global tension ebbs and flows like the ocean waves, sometimes violently and spectacularly. A ‘decision tree’ in which one follows through with an EMP has been identified and certainly exists, as our government fears. The vulnerability is recognized and is real by our own government (specifically the Trump administration). The deep and doomsday consequences of an EMP attack are real as described by the laws of physics. The U.S. is therefore not in a high and mighty position and safe or protected as some may boldly, and incorrectly, claim. The U.S. is more akin to a sitting duck. Or more accurately, like the slow and lazy antelope wading in the obscure and fuzzy field of a looming pounce from a deadly and patient predator.

So no, America is not safe from anything, as everything depends on electricity and our grid. For fast EMP’s which rival nations do have, defense systems would not be able to respond adequately or fast enough. Our retaliation measures would be nonexistent. Every such event in the decision tree of an American downfall and catastrophe has a much greater than zero probability even though others may naively ignore it or claim otherwise. It is merely a matter of seizing the opportunity and time though some may choose to not see.

References:

Cohen, A. (2019, April 05). Trump Moves To Protect America From Electromagnetic Pulse Attack. Retrieved November 6, 2020, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/arielcohen/2019/04/05/whitehouse-prepares-to-face-emp-threat/

Joshua D. Rhodes Postdoctoral Researcher of Energy. (2020, March 20). The old, dirty, creaky US electric grid would cost $5 trillion to replace. Where should infrastructure spending go? Retrieved November 6, from https://theconversation.com/the-old-dirty-creaky-us-electric-grid-would-cost-5-trillion-to-replace-where-should-infrastructure-spending-go-68290

Our Outdated Grid. (n.d.). Retrieved October 29, 2020, from https://cleanenergygrid.org/our-outdated-grid/

(n.d.). Retrieved December 14, 2020, from https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-112hhrg80856/html/CHRG-112hhrg80856.htm

Parfomak, P., Goldberg, D., Kappenman, J., Baker, D., Riley, P., M. Rivera, S., . . . Koppel, T. (1970, January 01). An assessment of threats to the American power grid. Retrieved December 14, 2020, from https://energsustainsoc.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13705-019-0199-y

America’s utilities prepare for a nuclear threat to the grid. (n.d.). Retrieved December 14, 2020, from https://www.economist.com/business/2017/09/09/americas-utilities-prepare-for-a-nuclear-threat-to-the-grid

Baum, C. E. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://ece-research.unm.edu/summa/notes/SDAN/0032.pdf

The stockmarket is now run by computers, algorithms and passive managers. (n.d.). Retrieved December 14, 2020, from https://www.economist.com/briefing/2019/10/05/the-stockmarket-is-now-run-by-computers-algorithms-and-passive-managers

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Causal Rewrite – bluntwriting88

A massive major storm taking out power to an entire swathe of the U.S. has the capability of leaving thousands without electricity for multiple weeks. Contrastingly, an electromagnetic pulse were to detonate over the middle of America, all the population’s means of communication, power, refrigeration, economy, and society would be at full mercy to the ionization of the particles in the air.  It doesn’t take a particularly foreign threat to do much damage to the U.S. population. Despite the development of physical understanding and technologies, America is in this energetically vulnerable position due to lack of investment in improved energy transport infrastructure, specifically the electric power grid. There is much physics and engineering which allows for electromagnetic shielding, and there is also much  literature and work done on improving operational procedures regarding our electrical power system. The only question is whether the U.S. government is prepared to being a serious and sophisticated analysis, reevaluation, monetary investment, and improvement upon the current existing infrastructure. Disinterest and funding shortfalls threaten America’s power grid as never before.

America has almost zero defensive and counter-threat infrastructure against EMP’s, which render electromagnetic devices useless. America can be fragmented and destroyed simply from disabling digital devices. Any foreign power with nuclear weapons can create an EMP over America. Power plants, substations, lines, devices, etc. would ultimately be severely damaged or obliterated by hostile foreign nations. Now more than ever the solution should be clear to scientists, engineers, the rest of the world, and America.

When one steps outside in America to examine the powerlines, it is hard to find any significant change at all since they were first erected. The only time we ever hardly see anything different or a replacement is during power outages. The antiquated delivery systems for electricity are only one such example of lack of interest and investment from the government according to CleanEnergyGrid.org. Powerlines, most of which are 30 years old, have not received investment since their inception. It would take a massive national effort and trillions of dollars to alter and re-engineer the dilapidated power grid. That is to say, the desperate changes America needs will not happen anytime soon, which only perpetuates the looming danger of losing society as we know it.

Many power plants were created during the post war boom following WWII. Yet, while WWII veterans become increasingly hard to come by, it is without scarcity to find a power plant dating to the 1940’s. so much so that the American Society of Civil Engineers gave the entire energy infrastructure a barely passing grade of D+ for all the United States. That is truly astounding considering electricity and its delivery is the literal powerhouse of our modern industrialized society. The U.S. government’s lack of interest, improvement, and investment in the power grid means that the state of our power systems has equivalently become a deteriorated and dilapidated relic with an increasing number of yearly problems.

As a matter of fact, America’s vulnerability and lacking in the energy sector currently ends up costing more money to supply electricity to millions of homes. If only investment would be made in changing or improving upon the power grid, then the investment would have a very good justification. So here a new vulnerability for America is created from the disinterest of change and funding: the vulnerability of American energy on the world market.  Americans paying more for outdated power delivery simply because the infrastructure has not been maintained or updated properly hurts the American economy, but most importantly and principally, Americans which are paying for electricity at the ‘archaic’ price level.

Americans are still living in the shadow of development and technological progress while utilizing dilapidated and unprotected electric devices and power transmission. As is usually the case, lack of money is the issue. A lack of interest for investment in  such a large and indispensable component of the American Machine is extremely dangerous, as all of the unshielded circuits which are abstracted away from us but inside everything we use are one short circuit away from complete inutility which implies the worst for America.


References

Cohen, A. (2019, April 05). Trump Moves To Protect America From Electromagnetic Pulse Attack. Retrieved October 29, 2020, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/arielcohen/2019/04/05/whitehouse-prepares-to-face-emp-threat/

Joshua D. Rhodes Postdoctoral Researcher of Energy. (2020, March 20). The old, dirty, creaky US electric grid would cost $5 trillion to replace. Where should infrastructure spending go? Retrieved October 29, 2020, from https://theconversation.com/the-old-dirty-creaky-us-electric-grid-would-cost-5-trillion-to-replace-where-should-infrastructure-spending-go-68290

Our Outdated Grid. (n.d.). Retrieved October 29, 2020, from https://cleanenergygrid.org/our-outdated-grid/

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Self-Reflective – bluntwriting88

Core Value 1. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.

My rebuttal argument involved interaction with my professor and much feedback necessary to improve the original draft. The process was recursive in that there was an original draft, feedback, and a new draft which flowed from one step to the next. The online feedback mechanism allowed me to reorganize and rethink my thoughts for the argument and I was able to make it more logical and cogent. https://rucomp2.com/2020/12/17/rebuttal-rewrite-bluntwriting88/

Core Value 2. My work demonstrates that I read critically, and that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create meaning by synthesizing ideas from various discourse communities. 

My definition essay involved me using different sources to synthesize one unifying idea from different types of articles. While my articles were of different subjects, the had underlying themes and principles which I was able to leverage into a carefully constructed argument.

https://rucomp2.com/2020/10/12/definition-bluntwriting88/

Core Value 3. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my own writing and other texts and visual arguments.

My visual rhetoric writing shows that I deeply analyzed the context, audience, and delivery of visual information via an online ad. Everything on screen is placed on screen for a purpose, and without getting too trivial in my analysis, I was able to include all the relevant visual information and extract and decipher their purposes via contextualization with the rest of the content in the online ad. https://rucomp2.com/2020/12/08/visual-rewrite/

Core Value 4: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.

My visual rhetoric writing also demonstrates incorporating illustrations and evidence. As evidence is observation based, the writing itself was mostly a collection of visual evidence and justifications. More than anything I attempted to incorporate as much as possible into the writing. It was difficult to try and arrive at what ‘the true’ intention was or to show that my own subjective view of an online ad was a valid view. However it was completed and showcased in this writing by starkly examining all the relevant visual information and applying a correct evaluation that coincided with the purpose and context of the other images to follow and rest of the ad.

https://rucomp2.com/2020/12/08/visual-rewrite/

Core Value 5. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation. 

My Stone Money writing was based off of  complex academic ideas regarding monetary theory and fiat currency. A variety of counterintuitive examples such as the island of Yap applied to showing that money is but a matter of organized faith. Regardless of what my own economic views are, I took the responsibility of accurately portraying the beliefs and views of the sources used as closely to the original intention as possible in order to fairly and accurately represent and manipulate various ideas logically.

https://rucomp2.com/2020/09/22/stone-money-bluntwriting88/

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Rebuttal Rewrite – bluntwriting88

Waiting for the End of the World

                Many would be surprised to hear that the United States, the most powerful and prominent military force and authority on the planet, is in fact one of the most vulnerable nations on Earth to a very specific kind of attack. That is, an Electromagnetic pulse to wholly cripple the power grid, all electronic devices, and everything else in between that depends on the flow of electricity – one of those being the U.S. economy. There are many factors to consider when contemplating or modelling the likelihood and motivation for an EMP attack. While many would agree direct attacks such as nuclear approach impossibility in their likelihood, an EMP attack is actually a less-direct attack that would in fact disarm the United States from an adequate and defensive response due to the digital nature of our integrated defense systems at present, and is therefore a highly plausible and very possible situation.
                As Ariel Cohen remarked in  Forbes, it is already well established  that America does not have proper preparation for an EMP attack that could disable national electronic and digital devices, of which everything essential running the American system is dependent upon. There also currently exist a plethora of fresh threats to American sovereignty, such as Iran, Russia, and China, among many which have an arsenal of nuclear weapons. Any nuclear bomb detonated in the atmosphere rather than via ground-impact can be utilized as an EMP with ranges as large as the area of the U.S. Such nations that do possess nuclear weapons thereby may utilize them as EMP’s against America. A detonated EMP in the atmosphere over the target region will ionize the particles in the air such that any electronic device will instantly short circuit due to the air present in them.  Many will claim that nuclear attacks against the major nation America is simply not in the realm of possibility. However, the only seed necessary for the possibility to exist is negative dispositions and views of America held by hostile individuals and nations, which we certainly know exist in abundance. We also encounter the argument of mutual destruction. The classic argument of mutual self-destruction due to nuclear weapons usage does not apply to the situation of a potential EMP strike on America. An EMP is not a direct attack such as a warhead is. An EMP is a weapon in that it drastically changes the electromagnetic field over America. While no physical damage will occur, the induced drastic alteration of the EM field over America will instantly disable all electronic devices. For mutual destruction to be possible, retaliation would need to be encountered when an EMP strikes. However, American defensive maneuvers and systems will not be able to function as they are electrically operated as well supplied by an outdated power grid. A ‘mutual’ interaction between forces, attacker and U.S., would not occur due to the EMP.

As discussed, it is clear that anyone can establish a basis for desiring damage to America, such as the case with hostile powers. It is much more logically preferable to disable every mechanism of retaliation and defense (of America), which would also harm all major supply and food lines along with the economy, and to engage in a more direct warfare or attack after said defense capabilities are rendered null. This can simply be done with a single nuclear bomb detonated a mere 25 miles above in the atmosphere – less that a short family trip away. The alternative to an EMP by definition can only involve confrontation and therefore retaliation. For such actors that wish to cause harm to America, the EMP option is real, smoother, and superior. An EMP blast’s effects could linger hours to days. According to the Economist, North Korea already has developed a hydrogen nuclear bomb which they mentioned could be specifically employed as a High Altitude EMP. North Korea’s attitude towards the U.S. in the recent years has been extremely volatile, unfriendly, and provocatory. It would only take one EMP attack to leave the U.S. in an open position to be readily attacked

 For the discussed reasons, the threat of retaliation from the U.S. is thereby little danger to a hostile actor. It is certainly true that such an EMP attack has never been attempted on such a large nation. However, this can be due to a variety of factors like globalization, lack of speed in EMP’s and simply lack of necessary tension in order to rigger such a chain of events. Yet we know from history that global tension ebbs and flows like the ocean waves, sometimes violently and spectacularly. A ‘decision tree’ in which one follows through with an EMP has been identified and certainly exists, as our government fears. The vulnerability is recognized and is real by our own government (specifically the Trump administration). The deep and doomsday consequences of an EMP attack are real as described by the laws of physics. The U.S. is therefore not in a high and mighty position and safe or protected as some may boldly, and incorrectly, claim. The U.S. is more akin to a sitting duck. Or more accureately, like the slow and lazy antelope wading in the obscure and fuzzy field of a looming pounce from a deadly and patient predator.

So no, America is not safe from anything, as everything depends on electricity and our grid. For fast EMP’s which rival nations do have, defense systems would not be able to respond adequately or fast enough. Our retaliation measures would be nonexistent. Every such event in the decision tree of an American downfall and catastrophe has a much greater than zero probability even though others may naively ignore it or claim otherwise. It is merely a matter of seizing the opportunity and time though some may choose to not see.

References:

Cohen, A. (2019, April 05). Trump Moves To Protect America From Electromagnetic Pulse Attack. Retrieved November 6, 2020, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/arielcohen/2019/04/05/whitehouse-prepares-to-face-emp-threat/

Joshua D. Rhodes Postdoctoral Researcher of Energy. (2020, March 20). The old, dirty, creaky US electric grid would cost $5 trillion to replace. Where should infrastructure spending go? Retrieved November 6, from https://theconversation.com/the-old-dirty-creaky-us-electric-grid-would-cost-5-trillion-to-replace-where-should-infrastructure-spending-go-68290

America’s utilities prepare for a nuclear threat to the grid. (n.d.). Retrieved December 14, 2020, from https://www.economist.com/business/2017/09/09/americas-utilities-prepare-for-a-nuclear-threat-to-the-grid

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Research Rewrite — SmilingDogTheProfWants

Kids Make Themselves Fat

Kids make themselves fat. A child from the ages of 4-18 makes the decision to turn on the TV over going outside or picking up a controller to play games over picking up a pencil to do their homework, so why do we think that childhood obesity is a different issue and blame parents for their child’s unhealthy lifestyle? A child is responsible for what they choose to do and for what they want; this means a child that makes poor decisions could end up overweight and won’t choose to do anything about that weight. A kid that wants fast-food everyday, the newest console, watches TV and YouTube constantly will almost always be behind physically when compared to kids who play outside. Children are responsible for their weight issues because they refuse to acknowledge the consequences their actions have on their physical health.

Obesity has gotten worse over the last few decades and continues to become a larger threat to health with more than one third of all Americans being overweight or obese. In Jane E. Brody’s New York Times article, “Attacking the Obesity Epidemic by First Figuring Out Its Cause,” She claims that the individual is not to blame, but instead that society around them has changed. The importance of this matter is to be closely compared to smoking and should be treated like smoking with degrading advertisements, showered with ways to help people lose weight, and the fact that it is not good for a person at all. This message means that no one can be to blame for what they eat but instead it’s someone else’s fault and though one could say that the large corporations are trying to make people this way it should not be argued that when they realize this it is their own fault. Obesity has been majorly impacted by the rise of fast food and recreational products but every person has a choice to consume or not consume whatever product they want, a child cannot be any different. A child has less of an excuse to be overweight on top of being able to understand that too much food and not enough movement makes you fat.

The reason children are obese is because they want fast food more than the other alternatives like a home cooked meal, fruit, or vegetables In fact, 34% of kids ages 2-19 ate fast-food on any given day according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics. A child only wants the sugary, salty, greasy food because it’s appealing to what they love and crave without caring for the issues of daily or even monthly consumption of fast-food that their schools and parents have told them about. Schools have put a lot of time and money into getting the information and holding classes that inform kids of the health issues revolving around all sorts of things, but the biggest being obesity. The Cdc claims there is around 18.5% of children ages 2-19 being considered overweight or obese (20%+ over expected weight for age, height, and sex). The education system slowly begins to cover more about the issues from being overweight and provide ways to alleviate the issue like physical activities and more in-depth classes about eating correctly. With 18.5% of all children in the United States being recorded overweight and obese it should be hard to believe that in every case a parent is to blame and should provide some ideas to how a child has more capabilities of controlling what they do and eat than the avearage day person would come to expect them to. With the education their parents and schools provide them most kids from the age of 12 and up should have no problem maintaining a healthy life through making independent lifestyle choices like eating and exercising. Those under the age of 12 are at more of a loss than their older counterparts because they may have less of a capacity to understand the consequences but they do know that there are issues and that those issues should be avoided, if a child chooses that they will not follow the advice from those around them then the child has made the decision without any outside influence suggesting he pick one lifestyle over the other.

It’s no secret that businesses target children for their advertisements even if they claim they don’t. Mcdonalds sold ridiculously unhealthy apples with caramel to entice kids into begging their parents and keeping them there with their small jungle areas that the kids love to play in. Kids are learning every single day from their experience and though they may not fully understand right away it is something they can come to understand if their weight gets out of control and they find that they can’t do the things they used to be able to. They won’t understand that businesses are targeting them or if they do they won’t care because the product being displayed to them is what they want. However, they will be able to recognize that kids their own age treat them differently, “Children who were obese were 65 percent more likely to be bullied than their peers of normal weight; overweight kids were 13 percent more likely to be bullied.” That kid will also need larger clothing and notice that they can’t run as fast or for as long as they used to and should be able to understand that eating less unhealthy foods can help or if they don’t have access to better quality food exercise is an amazing booster for bodily functions. What is important is that they don’t need the newest device or the cheesiest pizza to fulfill their wants and will come to the conclusion that a little resolve can lead to better things and a higher chance at a successful life. 

We hear more and more about how funding is needed to put forth educational and physical programs outside and inside schools to try to prevent, alleviate, and solve the obesity issues in our youth, yet the only thing that is focused on is the need for more funding and the correct targeted audience. Funding also does not equate to children paying attention to the instructor or slides, because the chances are if the kid is obese they already aren’t intreseted in caring about being healthy. Most programs warn you about the health issues of being obese and the statistics that show high mortality rates like the American Public Health Association stating that obese individuals are 20-40% more likely to get a cardio vascular disease and on average losing three to five years of their total life just from being obese in which at least 14% of all children are. If the kid is overweight they aren’t going to care about the 5 year loss because they’ll think it’s so far in the future and that all the issues with mobility and energy are noticeable when you’re young because your body is still growing. But even when something awful happens like the children at school making fun of how they look they proceed to do it and with articles like “obesse Kids more vulnerable to bullies” we can read that things like “children who were obese were 65 percent more likely to be bullied than their peers of normal weight; overweight kids were 13 percent more likely to be bullied,” and understand that the kid chose to do nothing about their issue because they are content with it or just don’t care.

The lack of energy one gets from not exercising and eating junk found is another negative effect that only adds onto the back of the kids that thought it would be that big of a deal to stay inside and play video games and watch TV or videos on Youtube, but those kids aren’t going to care anyway because they may think that it either doesn’t apply to them, they’re not willing to put in the work to alleviate their issues, or worse, doesn’t think they can get overweight. A child thinking it can’t happen to them or lacking the enthusiasm to change themselves because to them other than being larger than the other kids they don’t see any issues, everyday they’ll wake up with no pain in their knees and no loss of breath or energy because it takes time for those issues to develop and for their bodies to not be able to handle the excess weight anymore. 

The idea that a child wants the newest toys and devices relates to obesity in the sense that it forms bad mental habits that make it easier for a kid to become addicted to fast food and distracting content that keeps them from playing outside with their friends. A bad mental habit can easily be derived from sedentary lifestyles that become more and more prevalent in today’s day and age. Sedentary means that you spend most of your time seated or without much exercise, which perfectly sums up what playing a video game or watching a video or TV is mostly about. For a child to be surrounded by all sorts of new and interesting things it’s no wonder they’re obsessed with it all, but to get the newest thing when it comes out to use it as much as possible before something new comes along is dangerous for kids that need exercise and healthy diets also because the only thing they care about is those new things and they won’t have time to go outside. They choose to partake in life’s guilty pleasures over pleasures attained from playing with your friends outside building forts, playing tag, making up stories and acting them out, playing basketball or soccer, so many things that keep their attention but some choose to play a video game instead because it’s how they perceive to be a better use of their time. According to those that worked on “Sedentary behavior epidemiology,” the conscious decision that they would rather hit buttons on a controller or keypad over playing basketball is a choice that they make. It is taught to the kids very often that it is important for them to go outside so they refuse to go knowing that it’s better for them to be active and having that mentality will only carve if further into their mind if they keep deciding that they would rather stay inactive. 

The responsibility of a child wanting to watch YouTube over playing outside falls on the child, not the parent. A child will avoid going outside in order to watch the newest video of something that peaks their interests like any adult would consider doing, but what a young child will consider being interesting is something that’s flashy and brightly colored or something breaking, stuff that they can’t replicate which is expected of a child as well but to not realize that they rather look at someone playing football than going out with their friends and doing it themselves is a problem that a parent can’t force their kid to fix and would only lead to the kid being more stubborn if they punished him for it. If the kid has played outside they should be able to understand that both watching and doing something are extremely entertaining and fun to do, but when sedentary behavior outweighs playing outside it is because they chose to be lazy and have created their own issues that people other than themselves will have to deal with.

Most people would blame video games and other new electronics for the cause of obesity, especially in children, but statistics from GHinstitute show that obesity has been a rising problem since the late 80’s all the way to the dramatic difference from a reference point in the 70s to the year 2000 where a child was 3 times as likely to be obese. This sudden change wouldn’t have been caused by video games because the industry was very small at the time. Most of the distractions that draw kids to a sedentary lifestyle would be entertainment in general, of which the TV is the most influential. Most people would probably say then that both video games and television have caused a wave of obesity in the youth and according to the American Psychological Association in 2004, children spend on average 44.5 hours a week in front of electronic screens. People will always say that the kids would rather watch TV or play video games than go outside but never consider the issue of why that is. So while people go out blaming TV for the physical issues their daughter has or the problem their son has with staying up to play video games, they’ll never focus their energy on the fact that the child wants to watch the TV and not play outside. It is a game of pointing fingers but those vengeful fingers never point at the right source of the problem.

The parents aren’t the determinant of whether their kid is obese or not and the child may stop listening to their parent if they tell them to do something they don’t want to do. For these children it is much harder for them to identify what is wrong because they won’t listen to their parents, but when the child can determine that eating too much food and not going outside makes them gain weight and not feel well it is up to them to decide how their decisions will affect their future, for some it’s obesity and other kids it’s just playing outside every once in awhile. Parents can’t always be around with work or present with the kids while they’re at school so the child naturally will gain independence and for those working parents who try to have an active role in their child’s life but their kid is still unhealthy it is because that kid doesn’t want to change despite having the tools they need for the change. Most parents would not force their kid to do something they absolutely don’t want to do unless the child needed to do it so a kid that is unhealthy and stays that way is more at fault than the parents who can’t get them to change.

They say that this generation is the first generation predicted to not outlive their parents. One in four kids are considered overweight or obese in America and with numbers like that it’s no wonder that children from this generation wont outlive their parents. However, with 25% of around 75 million children today (under the age of 18) that makes 18,500,000 obese or overweight children and it should be understandable that in that eighteen and a half million cases, that the parents could not be at blame for each of them. The lack of impulse control is expected in a child and is unexpected of them to make the right choice every time, just like any adult, but to say that they are just children and don’t understand would be implying that a child can’t see that their clothes have grown and that they have gained weight. It’s important for them to go outside and play over sitting at home watching a YouTube video because it’s easier for them to make friends and keep active and for most kids they see a lot of fun in a friend to play with. Mayo Clinic has published an article saying that it is healthy to have a good friend because it keeps you in a good state of mind; if they like to play together then it will also keep them both physically active. Implementing some of this idea can have positive effects not only on a person’s children, but their siblings, cousins, friends, and also their own life because it creates some independence for the child to make the correct decisions and that those decisions can be more enjoyable than sitting inside.

Children are responsible for their grades, their behavior, and their everyday choices, so their weight should be accepted as something they control too. YouTube is a grand distraction as of late but the choice of doing homework over watching a video should at very least be considered similar to the choice of playing outside over watching a YouTube video. Kids also need to be willing to fight against others’ harassments and not succumb to the insults but understand that there is an issue and that it can be solved with some dedication and a little hard work. Obesity is a rising issue for children across the world and the fault doesn’t just lie with the parents, but also with the kids who choose an unhealthy lifestyle over an active one.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/childhood.html 

Borrell, L. N., & Samuel, L. (2014). Body Mass Index Categories and Mortality Risk in US Adults: The Effect of Overweight and Obesity on Advancing Death. American Journal of Public Health, 104(3), 512-519. doi:10.2105/ajph.2013.301597 Facts and figures on childhood obesity. (2014, October). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/end-childhood-obesity/facts/en/

American Psychological Association. (n.d.-a). Psychology Topics: The impact of Food Advertising on Childhood Obesity. Washington, D.C.: Author. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/topics/kids-media/food.aspx?item=1 

ghInstitute, O. M., Board, O. H. P. A. D., Food, A. N. B., & Committee, O. P. O. O. I. (2005). Preventing childhood obesity : Health in the balance. ProQuest Ebook Central https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/rowan/detail.action?docID=3377891&pq-origsite=primo 

Leitzmann, M., Jochem, C., & Schmid, D. (2019). Sedentary behaviour epidemiology (1st ed. 2018.). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-61552-3

Obese kids more vulnerable to bullies” Anne Harding, Health.com. 3 May 2010. 2 December 2020.

Attacking the obesity epidemic by first figuring out its cause” Jane E. Brody, New York Times. 12 Sept 2011. 16 December 2020.

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Bibliography—goldin92

  1. https://edsource.org/2019/grades-must-reflect-mastery-not-just-effort/609236

Chau, Derek. (2019, March 10). COMMENTARY: Grades must reflect mastery, not just effort. Retrieved October 14, 2020, from https://edsource.org/2019/grades-must-reflect-mastery-not-just-effort/609236

Background: In this article, the main focus is that grades reflect mastery, not just effort. This argument kind of rebuttals my hypothesis, showing that these grading systems are the right solution and should remain in the system. In the post, the author states, ” Students’ grades on assignments and report cards too often are based on the effort they make in class, not the mastery of what they need to learn by a given grade”. This is one of the leading arguments for making it an equal system, as most strict professors and teachers do not give grades if the work isn’t optimal and isn’t what the assignment was described, which ruins the dedication and the enthusiasm for actually learning the material. Even if college professors were generous with this, it would still be wrong, as the students need to be taking the courses they need to learn in order to succeed in life and in their career paths, as taking courses that don’t have any effect on the students future and is just a letter grade is wrong, and could put the student into a harmful position.

How I used it: This reference is part of an important system, as the students make an effort to actually learn the information are the ones who do end up succeeding rather than the students who don’t make an effort are the ones who get hurt by it. College professors focus on teaching the students the material they are proficient on, while the students mostly focus on getting the letter grade, which is the wrong way but sadly been the only way in the education system. I used this through almost all my papers, as it is a key argument into why the system isn’t right currently. 

2. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education-k-12/reports/2018/11/13/460397/quality-approach-school-funding/

Carmel Martin, Ulrich Boser. “A Quality Approach to School Funding.” Center for American Progress, www.americanprogress.org/issues/education-k-12/reports/2018/11/13/460397/quality-approach-school-funding/

Background: This article mostly is the proof that when money is put into the right parts of the educational system, then it leads to better student outcomes and better success. This article also talks about students in lower class communities and how much of a disadvantage they really have. The system is corrupt to a point that they need spread the wealth for everyone to have an equal chance.

How I used it: I used this in my rebuttal argument as it was one of the reasons I could back up my thesis, as it deletes the reason for equality. I used the main quote, “School funding systems should ensure equal access to core educational services”, as this really explains that it is a disadvantage to our society as a whole. 

3. https://www.edweek.org/education/opinion-teaching-those-who-dont-want-to-learn/1998/04

DeWitt, Peter. “This Is What Students Want Us to Know About Pandemic Learning (Opinion).” Education Week, Education Week, 8 Dec. 2020, www.edweek.org/education/opinion-this-is-what-students-want-us-to-know-about-pandemic-learning/2020/05.

Background: This article is mostly about the perspective of professionals and teachers on teaching students that don’t want to learn and how it isn’t easy at all. When it comes to teaching students that don’t have the incentive to learn because they weren’t taught that way, it becomes extremely difficult for the teachers and almost impossible to succeed. The teachers state that the students feel that they aren’t as smart as other students, making their self-esteem drop and creating an unsolvable issue.

How I used it: I used it in my rebuttal argument, as it is very important to show the teachers perspectives in the matter of teaching. Sometimes, no matter how much effort the teachers put into helping these types of students, it becomes inevitable and difficult to succeed in this. 

4. https://www.edweek.org/leadership/h-s-dropouts-say-lack-of-motivation-top-reason-to-quit/2006/03

Gewertz, Catherine. “H.S. Dropouts Say Lack of Motivation Top Reason to Quit.” Education Week, Education Week, 1 Dec. 2020, www.edweek.org/leadership/h-s-dropouts-say-lack-of-motivation-top-reason-to-quit/2006/03.

Background: This article explains reasons on why students drop out of schools, and its mostly due to lack of motivation. This has been built systemically, as students often give in at some point as they just are learning information they aren’t interested in, and have nothing to do with their futures. As dropping out of high school is a terrible idea, most of these students have other visions on their future success, and don’t really care about their diplomas in the first place. 

How I used it: I used this in my definition argument paper, as it was important for me to use it in that paper as it shows that even students in high school drop out because of the lack of motivation they have attained. The students just want to learn what helps them succeed overall, and they just aren’t in their high schools. 

5. https://inspirationeducation.co.nz/parent-advice/why-textbooks-dont-work-anymore-and-what-does/

Inspired Education. Why Textbooks Don’t Work Anymore – and What Does. 7 Sept. 2018, inspirationeducation.co.nz/parent-advice/why-textbooks-dont-work-anymore-and-what-does/

Background: This source basically speaks about how textbooks aren’t the best solution and should be only used as an option for educational services throughout the country, as its proven that it isn’t the best way to teach students. Not all students learn through reading, and a lot learn through visual methods, co ed methods, and peer to peer as well. This article is very useful as it shows that there’s always more than one option of teaching in way where people can be comfortable.

6. https://hechingerreport.org/why-do-schools-use-grades-that-teach-nothing/

Lash, J. (2020, March 30). Why do schools use grades that teach nothing? Retrieved October 14, 2020, from https://hechingerreport.org/why-do-schools-use-grades-that-teach-nothing/

Background: This article explains the reasoning behind grading, and how actual students react to it. The author quotes, “Grades tell students the absolute minimum about their abilities; they tell them only whether they have earned enough points under a teacher’s rubric to get a good mark.” This means that the students aren’t learning for the sake of learning, they are learning for a good mark on their report cards, sort of like labels. They stated that this one teaching at a large state university, reported feeling appalled by the number of students who want to do the bare minimum with the goal just to pass. They explain that they need to create “evaluations” for students, give them goals and rewards that encourage them to learn even if they can’t get the hang of the subject. Rewards are not only letter grades, is what the education system gets wrong. There needs to be an even exchange of effort and reward, creating a system where everyone has an incentive to become successful.

How I used it: This is very important, as I didn’t use this topic as much in my essays but it is very important. It’s the fact that most students seek a reward in return for the work and time they sacrificed in order to succeed. Most students, the only reward is that letter grade, but there is no other reward. That’s where some students get unenthused, and turn to not caring about it at all. 

7. https://www.cato.org/cato-journal/winter-2018/teachers-perspective-whats-wrong-our-schools

McAllister, Peter. A Teacher’s Perspective on What’s Wrong with Our Schools. (2018, February 08). Retrieved October 14, 2020, from https://www.cato.org/cato-journal/winter-2018/teachers-perspective-whats-wrong-our-schools

Background: The first idea i thought would be the most important is to see how actual teachers and professors feel about this situation. Teachers understand this, and they understand how students feel about taking courses they don’t think they need to for their relevant futures. As said in the article, “Students frequently cut corners for the sake of some short‐​term gain. If they thought that the rewards were high enough, students violated rules that they would not have violated otherwise”. Lots of teachers don’t teach students some material, as in NY for example, its stated, “A teacher in the same school pointed out that he did not teach history because it did not help his students pass the New York State Regents examination in social studies”. Another problem which teachers acknowledge in public schools is that they aren’t experts in the subjects that they teach. Although it isn’t the main issue, it demotivates students to learn, only focusing on the grade instead of learning and wanting to learn the material.

How I used it: I used this in my causal essay, as it helped me give an example of low income quality communities, and how the education system actually is in these places. It shows that it does give disadvantages to the system, creating cuts and hindrances between students with less privileges than others. 

How I used it: I used this mostly in my rebuttal, as it helped me decipher the best way to educate most students, instead of using the most comfortable way with textbooks. Personally, I learn the best with visual explanations, but a lot of students learn better personally with the teacher, and co ed methodology which is found a lot in this study. 

8. https://edsurgeindependent.com/how-can-we-change-the-education-system-as-we-know-5ed6dd7ca9f1

Ngo, E. (2018, December 28). How can we change the education system as we know? Retrieved October 14, 2020, from https://edsurgeindependent.com/how-can-we-change-the-education-system-as-we-know-5ed6dd7ca9f1

Background: This is kind of someone’s professional opinion, as it explains what advances and what could change the education system for the better, instead of making it a solely a competition based system, to make it a competitive system that gives opportunities for students to be passionate about what they learn. The author quotes,” It was not until I prepared for my US college application, when I was asked about my non-academic interests, that I realized all I knew (and cared about) was getting good grades: I no longer read books, rarely cared about news, and hardly inquired about the world around me. And despite having some academic achievements, I possessed too few useful skills — skills that are necessary for one to succeed in life such as critical thinking, problem-solving, decision making, and social skills”. This shows one of the biggest problems in education systems today, as he had few skills for his future even though he had good grades and possessed all he needed to know for the future of his education, bit he didn’t know the right decision making and logic problem solving to get himself in check.

How I used it: This shows the outcome of how the students became after giving up on school, as their IQ’s, and actual knowledge went low from just not caring about the work. I used this in all my essays, as it is the actual effect of the loss of incentive between all students, not matter which school. If the students lose incentive to learn, this is the number one outcome of it, creating a totally uneven system. 

9. http://www.worldacademy.org/content/corruption-education-major-issue

Radović-Marković, Mirjana. “Corruption in Education: A Major Issue.” Waas Masthead, 13 Dec. 2020, worldacademy.org/content/corruption-education-major-issue.

Background: This resource I used showed me the typical fraud that is show in the education system, giving money to the rich and privileged neighborhoods whom get better education, better teaching, better material for learning, and better incentives to learn. This ruins the system of “equality” in total. This source states that the 21st century uses a knowledge based economy, not an individual knowledge based economy. Only by judgment, It overall ruins the system making it unfair for people to thrive if they were born into a family with the not the best privileges.

How I used it: I used it in almost all my papers, as it shows that it’s an uneven distribution of wealth in the system. It shows that some students get better privileges, although it does prove that wealthier lifestyles show better results, it’s unfair to unwealthy lifestyles by not giving them a good chance as well. 

10. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190723104114.htm

Teacher incentive programs can improve student achievement. (2019, July 23). Retrieved October 14, 2020, from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190723104114.htm

Background: This article shows different ways that teachers can change their school environment to give incentives for students to achieve their goals. This is useful, as teachers can get compensation for how well their students do, which promote them to teach the best that they can, every year improving. This article gives an example of a program that changes the curriculum of the school, changing the way teachers teach in the school. The author states that, “Clusters of less experienced teachers meet daily with highly skilled teachers to learn new instructional strategies and receive individual coaching”. 

How I used it: This shows that as teachers learn new ways to engage the students, they are coached by the best teachers. Usually, this isn’t the case, as a lot of low income communities don’t have the best education, and simply don’t have the money to get the best education, especially for the teachers, not just the students. I used this in my rebuttal argument, as it helped me show how students actually engage in school. 

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Definition Rewrite—goldin92

 

Due to the old-fashioned curriculum, funding gaps in various communities, and the antiquated teaching styles, the education system is failing to grow with the times. Oftentimes the education system is taken for granted as an institution that does not require fundamental change, as it is a means of production of intelligent individuals and people generally value this output. However, there are many aspects of bias that prevent it from changing for the better and preventing people from recognizing aspects of it that fail students, teachers, and the like. Biases that affect finances, distribution of resources, and quality of education require examination as they create educational gaps between different communities, making it nearly impossible for students to escape paths they were arbitrarily placed into in their school systems.

Biases in the education system are typically elements that are initially taken for granted and are left unchecked over time. In the article “The Current Education System is Failing our Students”, the author quotes writes, “the educational system was built with a bias; bias in deciding where to direct funds, bias in the material we teach, and bias in where the school is located”. This statement shows that the community in which the school is located in already has a huge disadvantage in the quality of teachers it has and the amount of textbooks, as if the textbooks were even updated, as it the quality of education is dependent on factors like location that are not innate to education itself. Communities with better education and better funding often have a way higher success rate, even though the students in those systems might not be as bright as the ones in the lower communities, they were just born there. Funding the system is important as there is a lot of money already put in it, but the textbooks are outdated, the teachers are using the same tactics they were taught 30 years ago, and it’s based on luck whether or not you get the perfect teacher for the student. This is also important for the teachers as well, as they get paid differently depending where they decide to teach, as the ones who get paid more are generally the most experienced. There will always be different qualities of teachers, but due to the inability to accurately place them in institutions that correlate with their expertise and paygrade, bias is introduced into the system. A lot of the major decisions regarding personnel that shape the education system occur because of chance, and are therefore overlooked when trying to improve the education system.

Antiquated curricula hurt the system even more and make it difficult to change the way students absorb information and create emotional ties with it in order to succeed. In the article “The Current Education System is Failing our Students”, the author also states, “our school system still values discipline and a structured regimen under the teacher’s discretion”, showing that these schools have implemented tactics integrated in the system for hundreds and thousands of years, putting so much trust in the value for discipline that it is effectively a given trait of the education system. However, it is possible that imposed disciplinary tactics give little possibilities for students to actually care about what they learn, as the subjects and content they learn is imposed upon them by age-old values. This disables students from creating emotional links between the work they have and their own motivation, which can misguide students in their approaches to handling their own interests against the curricula. The type of discipline that’s used is similar to the teacher creating deadlines, punishments for students handing in late work, and a general feeling that the content they are learning is arbitrary and does not apply to them. Although there are different class levels setup for students who would thrive better in easier versions of the same class, it still makes it uneven as some students are learning better information than others and attaining statuses that determine the value of their success. This is a huge issue, as the system should be able to accept any type of student, at least in a public school setting, yet biases that form curricula focus on uniformity and discipline rather than enhancing individual motivation.

The education system fails to understand these tremendous facets as being biased, and by overlooking factors like curricula and demographic variability, these biases are allowed to perpetuate over time. One other such bias is the necessity to teach general eductation courses, as there is a belief they they teach the fundamentals of basic knowledge that is necessary for educational success. These subjects are mathematics, English and writing, history and social studies and hard sciences. While it is important to know the fundamentals, when it comes to ultimate success, if the students aren’t pursuing these subjects vocationally or have genuine interest in them, it doesn’t make sense to uniformly teach these “core” subjects every year until the 12th grade, and even in college as well. While there are arguments that suppose that a balanced curriculum formed by the combination of these subjects is good for the student, these arguments assume that a student’s overall success is derivative from their ability to tackle all of these courses efficiently. This isn’t right, and a lot of students aren’t interested in some of these subjects, as they don’t want to make it part of their future either. In the article, “Our education system is failing”, the author states; “English, math, and science are important because they teach us about the natural and social structures of our world, but students would also benefit from knowing practical life skills like how to file their taxes and why credit is so important”. Not only is it important, it is more important than continuously learning the same topics that rise  in complexity every year until the 12th grade. In many ways, the biases behind subject-oriented necessity hinder students’ abilities to use their times at school to pursue subjects of interest to them that are not a part of the general curriculum.

            The education system is failing to change to its biased stance on funding and demographic gaps, value towards discipline, and uniformity-driven curricula. The system is made to teach the fundamentals and not the ways to become successful as a human, but as a student. The inability to recognize the biases that dominate the education system will only perpetuate the lack of motivation and hinder students’ true potential for success.

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Reflective—goldin92

Throughout the semester, I’ve learned a culmination of different skills, concepts and  values that helped me to become a more experienced and eloquent writer. Writing is a series of  steps, as it’s not just writing through a paper spilling out thoughts on top of thoughts in a series  of sentences and paragraphs. Writing is more than just the sum of its parts, more than drafting combined with editing as many times as needed; it is a continued process until the work is the best that it can be. The following is a series of steps and levels that I had to overcome throughout this course, I feel that I have become a totally different writer coming out of high school coming out of my sophomore year in college. 

Core Value 1. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.

For my first core value, I felt that I portrayed great improvement and growth in my work  throughout the semester, and that my work and research towards my essays began slowly with  collaboration from online sources and textbook sources. I felt that my work was thoroughly getting feedback, as I did peer review with my professor. Even though I struggled a lot throughout the pandemic-themed semester, I managed. I feel that even though my ability to produce work decreased while doing it from home, I still managed to thoroughly learn to explain myself and articulate my point in almost all my arguments throughout the course. 

Core Value 2. My work demonstrates that I read critically, and that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create comparative meaning. 

For core value two, I feel that my research was closely related to my topic and I explained myself thoroughly throughout my essays. I found many points in my research that related to my topic and expanded my knowledge on the topic. In my causal argument essay, I believe I did a good amount of research on the main topic of education systems being misguided throughout time. I used many quotes from the sources I used in my research, as I quote the author to further my point in my thesis. I did understand that without the research, you have no background and no backup with your arguments, and I learned that most importantly this semester. For example, in my causal argument I state, “Students should be swayed into wanting to learn, no matter what topic it is, as it shows that the student is interested to learn about anything not just to get a letter grade”, and then i back it up with a quote from the article “Teaching Those Who Don’t Want To Learn”, saying that students self-esteem is lower due to the fact that all they strive for is a letter grade and making some students feel they are less smart or competent than others.

Core Value 3. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my own writing and other texts and visual arguments.

I feel that this is the most important and best core value that I have  proscribed throughout the semester. In context, there can’t be an argumentative essay with research used as backup without the use of persuasion and facts to back up the claims. In my definition argument, I use many facts pertaining to biases and contextualize my thesis. An example of this would be when I used the quote from the article, “our school system still values discipline and a structured regimen under the teacher’s discretion”, and then I stated that this integration was implemented in the country for hundreds of years. This value made it enabled me to articulate my point to the audience, as for every main point I put in the essay I had to use evidence to back it up as proof to the statement I made. 

Core Value 4: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating literary illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.

For my fourth core value, I feel that I have used this core value a lot throughout my essays. For every paragraph of my informative essays, I used citations and quotes to overlay my arguments and to portray my points. The research I selected through this course was very selective, as I wanted each statement I quoted from my research to articulate the point I was making in every paragraph, as without them the reader wouldn’t be able to understand or validate my claims. I used text citations, and I cited all the websites and sources I used through the course in my annotated bibliography with MLA, and I wanted to make sure it was correct before I did so. 

Core Value 5. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation. 

For my fifth core value, it is represented mostly through my argumentative essays and  statements. I portray this thoroughly in my visual rhetoric, as there is no win or defeat in the  argument, it’s only a research based and informative opinion. I feel that I used the art of persuasion a lot in my arguments, as I believe it is very important to show that as the reader must rely that your information is real and true. I feel like I used logic over emotion almost all the time, as it wouldn’t be professional and would be incorrect in my arguments to state things with opinion. My thesis would have been a one-sided argument but backed up with research, not opinion, while I refute counterpoints in the argument. I feel that I explained all my sources thoroughly, and cited all of them and articulated my understanding on each point as best as I could. 

Throughout the semester, I have learned a culmination of core values and techniques to  articulate my views and arguments the best way possible, and to back up my claims and points  with research and cited information. Given this, there is much more that I’ve learned throughout writing composition, how to cite in format of APA and MLA, how to find credible sources and implement them in my own essays, and how to give more than enough  information on little controversies talked about today. I feel overall I learned a lot this semester, and I learned discipline most of all when writing these long papers, as information has to be conveyed thoroughly not spilled unevenly and quickly.

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Rebuttal Rewrite—goldin92

            Schools are failing and students are dropping out because of the negative aspects of the education system. There are many arguments that may refute this claim, as the education system could be fixed and some might not see it as a system that needs fixing at all. However, there are many problematic values perpetuated by the current education system that need to be looked at more critically, some of which include distribution of funding and teaching methods. The education system has come to a point where it’s a very one-sided ,biased view favoring conservative methods of education, and a progress is usually difficult to take place when a system does not advocate for its own change. 

            One reason as to why the education system still needs changing is that monetary resources are not allocated efficiently and fairly. Some might argue that different microcosms deserve different funding, but that does not answer the question of equity of information, as students nationwide still need to know similar things, regardless of school funding. So many students are in a position where they are learning material that is outdated, repetitive, and sometimes incorrect as well, and that is due to lack of funding to update schools with era-conscious materials and faculty. In the article “A Quality Approach to School Funding”, the author quotes, “School funding systems should ensure equal access to core educational services,” which applies not just to individual schools but the system as a whole, meaning that if some schools are benefiting from more up-to-date education due to their higher funding, then it is only fair that others should as well. The author also states, “When states invest in their public schools and create more equitable school finance systems, student achievement levels rise, and the positive effects are even greater among low-income students”, showing that investing in a more even distribution between school systems helps students from varying financial backgrounds by evening the playing fielf. When students are learning the same material as everyone else, as long as the material is updated and proficient, the success rates tend to rise. 

            There are many ways that teaching methods hinder students success, and the education system would be vastly improved in all teachers were taught professionally the same ways as everywhere else, and maintained that knowledge throughout their careers. In a study by the New England Complex Systems Institute, convergent and divergent teaching methods are shown to be effective as they hone in on self-directed teaching, targeting the motivation of students. One might argue that students are not aware of their own motivations and desires, and that the goal of an education system is to develop holistic knowledge rather than encourage self-direction. While it is important to have general knowledge of the world around us, one thing that is missing is understanding how to motivate oneself, and divergent teaching styles encourage students to find their own approach to solving problems. If education systems had a means of generalizing the type of students in the certain school, schools would have the ability to cater to the values of individual students and allow them to pursue the work that interests them and motivates them to think critically, not just forcing them to plug and chug formulas and rules. This can mean that teachers could adapt their methods on a student-by-student basis to promote motivation and attention, all the while teaching valuable subjects.

            Textbooks have been the main way of learning through schools, colleges, and many educational institutions. Although reading and analyzing mathematic equations are vital, almost all other subjects are subjected to failure when put through textbooks. The argument here is that by providing students with a single source, they are not encouraged to think outside of the box, and studying may become mundane. An argument can be made that this method instills consistency, as students would learn to rely on the text for knowledge. However, this narrows down the list of options a student might have, and it can discourage ingenuity. Studies have shown that peer to peer and teacher to student direct teaching styles are the key to success in these subject matters, particularly because subjects like mathematics aim to teach problem-solving through explicit methods. According to the study “Why textbooks don’t work anymore – and what does” by Inspiration Education, textbooks aren’t the only option and educators must rely on their own sources to keep the momentum going. The author of the study states that “textbooks are a tool, not a solution. They are meant to supplement an education, to offer references for when the student is outside the classroom, and to provide an engaging resource against which students can test their knowledge”. This is a very important statement, as it shows that textbooks may not provide an engaging way for a lot of students to study, but rather are one tool of many possible options. This study shows that textbooks are a lot of the time unaffordable for so many students, inaccurate and not updated, and repetitive throughout many editions of teaching the same material. Not only is it extremely expensive, it could be easily not paid for and taught through PowerPoints, visual slideshows, or visual lectures in general without spending or requiring students to spend hundreds on a single tool. 

            These are issues that are constantly being brought up in many communities, as it further more shows that the education could be better if these problems were attended to. Many teachers agree with these issues, and believe that a change is needed in order to guarantee the future of our nation will go in the right direction, as a lot of students today are succeeding the old fashioned way or not succeeding at all. Funding the correct departments in the system instead of spending the money elsewhere, changing the entire teaching styles and evenly distribute correct information throughout all communities with the right tools, and changing the entire system as a whole in order to create a new and better one. This is crucial to our success, and the success of all students for the future, and must be done. 

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