Bibliography- runnerd4

Annotated Bibliography

1. Garber, N., Ehrhart, A., & Virginia Transportation Research Council. (1970, January 01). The effect of speed, flow, and geometric characteristics on crash rates for different types of Virginia highways. Retrieved September 25, 2020, from https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/19514

Background:

This essay is about a study conducted on how many aspects affect the crash rates for Virginia Highways. It was found that speed limits above 68 mph substantially increase the number of crashes. Figure 6 “shows that at a relatively high flow per lane, the crash rate decreases as the standard deviation of speed increases.” This study shows that highways need to be relatively clear for the increase of speed limit to be able to decrease accidents

How I Used It:

Although I did not directly cite this source in my writing, it helped lead me to the research I did later on for my writing about higher flows of traffic. This gave me a starting point in my research from which I branched out from in my further research.

2. Temp. (2004). The Speedo. Retrieved September 25, 2020, from http://www.safespeed.org.uk/speedo.html

Background:

This article included a lot of interesting information from a study on how checking the speedometer affects the amount of time the driver’s focus is taken off the road. The first fact is that it takes the on average .91 seconds to check the speedometer and refocus human eyes on the road. 0.91 seconds is a lot considering how much can happen in just a split second when driving. It also included this chart about driving in a 50 mph zone for 8.2 seconds. Just one speedometer check reduces the percent of road observation by 13%!! If someone checks the speedometer very often the amount of observation lost can be extremely dangerous, especially when driving on a highway.

How I Used It:

I used this source when I was discussing different distractions while driving. I used the example of checking the speedometer to display that even a seemingly harmless distraction can cause accidents. Anything that takes the driver’s full attention off of the road is considered a distraction. I also used this source to show that removing the need to check the speedometer would reduce accidents by removing the distraction.

3. Navon, D. (2002, January 30). The paradox of driving speed: Two adverse effects on highway accident rate. Retrieved September 25, 2020, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001457502000118

Background:

This was a great study. It showed that how the idea of “speed kills” isn’t entirely true. The thing that kills is when two vehicles enter what is called an accident prone interaction, or an API. APIs include ” (a) when cars moving on intersecting roads come at about the same time to an intersection, (b) when cars moving in opposite directions on the same undivided road pass each other, (c) when cars moving in the same direction on different lanes of the same road momentarily drive next to each other, and (d) when a car coming from the rear of another one switches lanes next to the other one (either by switching to an adjacent lane to overtake it, or by returning to the original lane).”  In the study it showed that traveling at higher rates of speed actually significantly reduced the amount of APIs a driver encounters. The faster the vehicles are going, the less time they spend near other cars. The less time they spend near other cars, the risk of accidents is greatly decreased. It also mentioned how speed limitless roads such as parts of the German autobahns had extremely low accident rates. When the traffic levels are high on those roads, the drivers naturally reduce their speeds to avoid accidents, which seems like common sense.

How I Used It:

I used this source multiple times throughout my paper. I used this source as evidence to explain how there are many other, much more important, factors to causing accidents other than speeding. I also used the topic of APIs to prove how traveling at faster rates of speed actually can reduce the accident rate. The sections of the article on the German Autobahn motivated me to do further research on the German Autobahn.

4. Houghlen, M. (2019, October 29). Is the Autobahn Safer Than U.S. Highways? Retrieved September 25, 2020, from https://www.motorbiscuit.com/is-the-autobahn-safer-than-u-s-highways/

Background:

This article is about the German Autobahn. There are less vehicle related fatalities on the autobahn system than on the US highway system. This may be due to the fact that Germany takes great care of their highways and it is much more difficult and expensive to obtain a license in Germany than in the United States, costing up to $2000 and up to 6 months to complete. Germany also strictly enforces many traffic laws like no tailgating and the left lane is only for passing. Although the autobahn is not completely speed limitless, about 65% of the highway system is unrestricted.

How I Used It:

Although I did not cite this source in my writing, I used this source to research the German Autobahn. My research on the German Autobahn gave me a better understanding of what increasing the speed limit looks like in real life.

5. U.S Department of Transportation. (2000, November). Road Function Classifications. Retrieved October 9, 2020, from https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/speedmgt/data_facts/docs/rd_func_class_1_42.pdf

Background:

This infographic gave information about different categories of roads. The first type of road is the interstate system. The interstate system is characterized by a high level of mobility and high speeds over long distances. The next type is other arterial roads such as freeways and highways that supplement the interstate system. These types of roads connect major cities, movability is limited, and speeds are generally pretty high. Next, there are collectors that connect local roads with arterials. Collectors have lower mobility and lower speeds than arterials and the interstate system. Finally, there are local roads which are the types of roads that give access to residential areas and businesses. They have a lower speed limit than the other road types. The last bit of information given is about the distance traveled on each type of road and the fatality rates on these roads.

How I Used It:

I used this source to define which type of road would be reasonable to increase the speed limit on. I came to the conclusion that it would be safe for arterials, most especially the interstate system to increase their speed limits.

6. Intersection Safety Issue Briefs. (2009, November). Retrieved October 09, 2020, from https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/intersection/other_topics/fhwasa10005/brief_2.cfm

Background:

This source is from the Federal Highway Administration. The author(s) purpose of this piece is to give people information about the issue of safety in intersections. Intersections are very complex areas and it is important to make the correct decision at them. Adding the possibility of people making bad decisions at an intersection makes it even more difficult. It provided many important statistics dealing with crash rate at intersections, rate based on age and gender, rate based on type of traffic signal, rate over the years etc..

How I Used It:

I used this source to describe the importance of the decisions that people make when they are driving. I called these decisions critical decisions. Drivers have to make these decisions constantly. Making the wrong decision could very easily lead to an accident, while making the right decision could avoid an accident, as long as the other drivers make the right decision as well.

7. Virginia Tech. (2006, April 21). Findings Released On Real-world Driver Behavior, Distraction, Crash Factors. Retrieved October 26, 2020, from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/04/060420233031.htm

Background:

This article went over the issue of driver inattention. Driver inattention is the leading cause in accidents and near accidents. One important fact from this article is that 80 percent of crashes and 65 percent of near crashes involve some form of driver inattention. There are many activities that could cause a driver to be inattentive such as using a cell phone. Another important aspect is that drivers cannot ever truly find a safe time to take their eyes off of the road because the driving situation can change in a split second.

How I Used It:

I cited this source in my work using the statistic that 80 percent of crashes and 65 percent of near crashes involve some form of driver inattention. I used that statistic to display the issue of driver distraction in the causation of accidents. I used it to back up the idea that accidents are not simply caused by speeding, but there are many other, more important, aspects in the causation of accidents.

8. Currin, A. (2020, October 05). U Drive. U Text. U Pay. Retrieved October 26, 2020, from https://www.nhtsa.gov/risky-driving/distracted-driving

Background:

This article is based on the concept of the dangers of distracted driving, especially texting and driving. Texting and driving is very common nowadays. One very concerting fact is that sending or reading a text takes the driver’s eyes off of the road for five seconds and at 55 mph for 5 seconds is the distance of a football field. Distracted driving puts so many people in danger, including the people in other cars. In 2018 alone there was 2841 people killed in accidents involving distracted drivers. The article also included information on how to work against distracted driving.

How I Used It:

I cited this article in my work by using the fact about how at 55 mph, checking a text causes someone to drive the distance of an entire football field without paying attention to the road. I also used this statistic to point out the issue of distracted driving and how it can cause many deadly accidents.

9. Choi, E. (2010, September). Crash Factors in Intersection-Related Crashes: An On-Scene Perspective. Retrieved October 26, 2020, from Crash Factors in Intersection-Related Crashes: An On-Scene Perspective, from https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/811366

Background:

This study was about the important decisions made before an accident occurs or is possibly avoided. Choi focused on intersection related crashes. There are many different decisions that can be made at an intersection. It was found that most accidents occur at an intersection when a driver is turning left at 22.2% of accidents.

It was also found that the poor decisions made by male and female drivers at traffic signals are different. For females, some of the poor decisions are “inattention” or “internal distraction” while for males some examples are “illegal maneuver” or “too fast for conditions or aggressive driving.” It seems based off of this study that women are more likely to be distracted while driving.

How I Used It:

I also used this source to display the importance of the decisions made before an accident. I used the example of how even making the wrong decision while turning left is the leading cause in 22.2% of intersection accidents. Making the right decisions could avoid accidents, but making the wrong one could end with a fatality.

10. Dangers of Increasing Highway Speed Limits. (2015, April 02). Retrieved November 03, 2020, from https://drivingschool.net/dangers-increasing-highway-speed-limits/

Background:

This source was focused on the possible dangers that could result from increasing the speed limit. The writer believed that increasing the speed limit would lead to more accidents and more deadly ones. He was irritated that states continue to increase their speed limits although he believes that there is enough evidence to prove that increasing the speed limit is dangerous. The writer stated the painfully obvious fact that as the speed at which crashes occur is raised, the higher the fatality rate of the accidents would be. He stated that as a result of the 1996 speed limit increases, the fatalities increased by 15%.

How I Used It:

I used this piece in my rebuttal essay. Although it is obviously true that fatality rates increase, he provided no evidence to back up his claim that increased speed limits increased crash rates. Luckily for me, I had the evidence that directly refuted his claim. I used my evidence to refute what he was saying.

11. Gao, C., Li, Q., & Yang, J. (2019). The Effect of Posted Speed Limit on the Dispersion of Traffic Flow Speed (Rep.). MDPI, from https://bit.ly/38LDF4a

Background:

This study focused on traffic flow when speed limit is increased. For every 20km/h increase in the speed limit, the average speed is increased by about 18 km/h, which is generally consistent with the increase of the speed limit value. It can be inferred that the average speed of the traffic flow has a high correlation with the speed limit.

How I Used It:

I used this source in my rebuttal to point out the positive effects of increasing the speed limit, in particular increased traffic flow.

12. Think driving stress is ruining your life? Apparently it is. (2014, August 22). Retrieved November 03, 2020, from http://www.cityclock.org/driving-stress/

Background:

This source focused on the negative impacts that a long commute can have on someone’s mental and physical health. Long commutes can lead to high levels of stress with indicators such as high blood pressure, high heart rates, and anxiety. People with longer commutes also experience more sick days. More sick days would lead to a lower rate of productivity for a worker. People with longer commutes also have much less patience which can affect the attitudes of the people around them.

How I Used It:

I used this source to point out another possible positive effect of increasing the speed limit. Increasing the speed limit would lead to higher traffic flow which would in turn lead to shorter commute times. Shorter commute times would help to increase the mental and physical health of the drivers.

13. “Distractions: In and Out of the Vehicle.” NHTSA, www.nhtsa.gov/sites/nhtsa.dot.gov/files/documents/driverdistractions.pdf.

Background:

This article from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is about multiple types of distractions that a driver can be subject to. The article pointed out that the driver also faces distractions outside of the vehicle such as crash sites, construction, and people, places, or things of interest on the roadside. The article also explained how drivers younger than 20 are at greater risk for distracted driving. The article then gave examples of a few consequences of distracted driving such as inability to avoid collision with stopped vehicles and reduced situational awareness. Finally, the article made a list of tips for drivers to help avoid distractions.

How I Used It:

I used this article to point out the fact that distractions also occur outside of the car, not just inside. I listed the examples of outside distractions included in the article to give my readers a better idea of what outside distractions could be.

14. “Distracted Driving.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 26 Oct. 2020, http://www.cdc.gov/transportationsafety/Distracted_Driving/index.html.

Background:

This article from the CDC was about the topic of distracted driving. The article put distractions into three different categories; visual, manual, and cognitive. Next, the article went into the statistics about how dangerous distracted driving is with 2,800 people killed and 400,000 people injured in distraction related accidents in 2018 alone. Next, the article explained that young adult and teen drivers are more likely to be distracted while driving. Finally, there were ways listed that individuals, states, and the federal government can/are helping to prevent distracted driving.

How I Used It:

I used this article to put distracted driving into three different categories. Providing the categories makes it easier to understand different types of distractions and to go into more detail.

This entry was posted in Bibliography, Portfolio RunnerD4, runnerd4. Bookmark the permalink.

6 Responses to Bibliography- runnerd4

  1. runnerd4 says:

    Hi professor Hodges, I would like some feedback on my background sections of my bibliography.

  2. davidbdale says:

    This “Background” section provides a very effective description of specifically the content that made the source useful to you. It’s clear and concise but just thorough enough.

    It does however contain a couple of Fails For Grammar errors. Be sure to check the rest of your sections for these as well.

    This essay is about a study conducted on how many aspects affect the crash rates for Virginia Highways. It was found that speed limits above 68 mph substantially increase the amount of crashes. Figure 6 “shows that at a relatively high flow per lane, the crash rate decreases as the standard deviation of speed increases”. This study shows that highways need to be relatively clear for the increase of speed limit to be able to decrease accidents.

    You’ve broken FFG Rules 5 and 7.

  3. davidbdale says:

    This article included a lot of interesting information from a study on how checking the speedometer effects the amount of time your focus is taken off the road. The first fact is that it takes the on average .91 seconds to check your speedometer and refocus your eyes on the road. 0.91 seconds is a lot considering how much can happen in just a split second when driving. It also included this chart about driving in a 50 mph zone for 8.2 seconds. Just one speedometer check reduces your percent of road observation by 13%!! If someone checks the speedometer very often the amount of observation lost can be extremely dangerous, especially when driving on a highway.

    Breaks Rules 9 and 12. Rule 12 it breaks repeatedly.

  4. davidbdale says:

    I used this source when I was discussing different distractions while driving. I was explaining how something that seems so obsolete can actually lead to an accident when your focus is off of the road for that long. I also used this as a piece of evidence for how not having to look at speedometers would reduce the risk of accidents because there would be less distractions.

    Watch out for your use of “how,” RunnerD4. Use it only when you’re actually described a method or technique (you know, . . . how!). You use it twice here, neither time correctly.
    Misused the word “obsolete.”
    Breaks Rules 12 and 5
    A model:

    I used this source to describe how distractions cause traffic accidents. (Yes, HOW they do so . . . by creating moments of driver inattention.) I explained that something as seemingly innocuous as the speedometer can lead to an accident by stealing driver focus from the road and other traffic. I used source also to show that eliminating the need to look at speedometers would reduce accidents by eliminating one distraction.

  5. davidbdale says:

    In general, I’m in favor of the work you’ve done here, Runner. You provide plenty of specific details in your Background sections, and you detail the use you put the information to. I liked your description of your refutation of the rebuttal source.

    But I also see in virtually every section the same errors I’ve already noted: 2nd-person language, misuse of “how,” mixing up number and amount words. They undermine the overall quality of your work. (And likely they are also diminishing the effectiveness of your more important Argument papers as well.)

  6. Pingback: Reflective- runnnerd4 | Counterintuitivity

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