Annotated Bibliography–Daphneblake

Shows, N. P. (2016, November 21). Home. Retrieved April 28, 2019, from https://earthwiseradio.org/2016/11/why-do-animals-eat-ocean-plastic/

Background: This website explains that due to the fact that around 8 million tons of trash enter the ocean every year, more and more sea animals are at risk from the damages of the plastic. The article begins by saying how scientists have known for years that animals eat plastic because it looks like food and it’s invading their home. But the site goes on to explain how to strong smell from the plastic can lure animals in as well.

How I used it: I used the website for a scientific study the article talked about. The study proved that sea animals eat plastic because it looks like food. This helped me make the point that to a hungry sea turtle, a floating plastic bag resembles a jellyfish.

US Department of Commerce, & National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2016, April 13). What are microplastics? Retrieved from https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/microplastics.html

Background: This website is a small article on what microplastics are. It explains in detail how the research of microplastics is being conducted right now with different organizations such as the marine debris program.

How I used it: I literally just used this article for the of sentence at the beginning of my paper to define what microplastics are.

Causes and Effects of Ocean Pollution That Are Destroying Our Planet. (2019, April 09). Retrieved from https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/causes-and-effects-of-ocean-pollution.php

Background: This site was very descriptive with talking about what is ocean pollution and the different causes for it. So not only does it give the definition, but it names the 11 major causes for ocean pollution such as litter and sewage.

How I used it: I needed to list the causes of ocean pollution to explain how my hypothesis could work in fixing littering and this article assisted me with this.

Animals Eat Ocean Plastic Because it Smells Like Food. (2016, November 09). Retrieved April 28, 2019, from https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/11/animals-eat-ocean-plastic-because-of-smell-dms-algae-seabirds-fish/

Background: The National Geographic explained how sea animals not only eat the plastic that’s in the ocean because it looks like food, but they’re being lured in to eat it because it smells like food as well. The Algae that most seabirds eat gravitate to the broken down plastic and this leads the animals to eating it.

How I used it: I used this website because I wanted to further explain the detrimental effects that pollution has on the world. This new study reported by scientists shows that the effects of ocean pollution are deeper than we can see so it was very beneficial.

Schultz, P., & Reid, S. R. (2009). Executive summary: Litter in america 2009 national litter research findings and recommendations. Retrieved April 28, 2019, from https://www.kab.org/sites/default/files/News&Info_Research_LitterinAmerica_ExecutiveSummary_Final.pdf.

Background: This website was more of a research and data finding journal. It explained the research of two professors and how they observed and surveyed different people regarding their interactions with littering.

How I used it: I used the data collected from this research to show how humans littering has become a problem we can no longer handle because it’s so hard to regulate and control.

United Nations Environment Programme. (1970, January 01). Marine litter: Trash that kills. Retrieved March 31, 2019, fromhttps://wedocs.unep.org/handle/20.500.11822/9691

Background: This source focuses on  explaining how Marine litter is a vicious killer of marine mammals, seabirds and many other life forms in the marine and coastal environment. The source also explains how ocean pollution entails substantial economic costs and losses to, e.g., fisherman, boat owners in general, coastal communications, farmers, power stations and individuals.

How I used it: I used this website for the statistic that said 100.000 sea animals die a year from plastic in the ocean to make a claim in my research paper about how polluting the ocean affects the economy because it decreases the sea food and fishing market.

Fox, B. (n.d.). Sustainable Seafood. Retrieved April 4, 2019, fromhttps://www.worldwildlife.org/industries/sustainable-seafood

Background: World Wildlife is a website that advocates for the safety and cleanliness of the fishing industry based on the numerous amount of the population that relies on the sea food market. It goes into detail about farms and how they ensure nothing such as pesticides or diseases make it into the fish people eat every day.

How I used it: I used this source for the statistic that states that “Approximately three billion people in the world rely on both wild-caught and farmed seafood as their primary source of protein.” I used this stat because it helped me prove the point that sea life such as fish is a very important source of income for the world so ocean pollution would cost the economy to take a hit.

N. (2017, May 9). U.S. fishing generated more than $200B in sales in 2015, two stocks rebuilt in 2016. Retrieved April 4, 2019, from https://www.noaa.gov/media-release/us-fishing-generated-more-than-200b-in-sales-in-2015-two-stocks-rebuilt-in-2016

Background: I used the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for a lot of my sources because their organization advocates for ocean safety and exemplifies the importance of it. This source in particular talks about the fishing industry and how essential it is to not only the U.S economy, but other countries such as Mexico. The main focus of this source is numbers. It talks about how much the fishing industry has brought in financially over the years and how that number is steadily growing as the fishing market expands.

How I used it: I used this source for the statistic, “U.S. commercial and recreational fishing generated $208 billion in sales, contributed $97 billion to the gross domestic product and supported 1.6 million full- and part-time jobs in 2015”. This was important to me because it shows how reliant America is on the fishing industry not just with supplying food but money to the economy as well. My point of how ocean pollution will eventually tear a hole in this system stands because of these statistics.

US Department of Commerce, & National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2008, October 08). How important is the ocean to our economy? Retrieved April 4, 2019, fromhttps://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/oceaneconomy.html

Background:  This source by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is very short and just states some stats that further emphasis how important the ocean is to the economy.

How I used it: I used this source for the stat, “Tourism and recreation account for 72 percent of the ocean economy’s total employment and 31 percent of its GDP. Offshore mineral extraction accounts for another 43 percent of the ocean economy’s GDP.” I used this because I was making the point that ocean pollution will have negative effects on the economy based on recreation activities such as enjoying a day on the beach.

Parker, L. (2018, October 10). Beach clean-up study shows global scope of plastic pollution. Retrieved March 25, 2019, from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2018/10/greenpeace-beach-cleanup-report-highlights-ocean-plastic-problem/

Background: This source by the national geographic states how beach cleanups are beginning to not make a difference because of the massive amount that accumulates every day. The author emphasises how new trash inevitably appears in minutes as people try to clean it up.

How I used it: I used this source for the quote by Nicholas Mallos who is directs the Ocean Conservancy’s Trash Free Seas program. He states,”I have been on beaches in Hong Kong, Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, and Indonesia where you can watch plastics and debris in the barrel of each wave crash onto the beach. Literally, the trash starts getting replaced as soon as you pick it up”. I thought this quote from Mallos was important because it helped me make the point that the attraction for beaches would go down because of all the trash on the sand. This will ultimately affect the economy because of how much recreational activities such as the beach makes for the world.

Blog. (2014, March 24). Retrieved March 25, 2019, from https://www.planetaid.org/blog/how-ocean-pollution-affects-humans

Background: This source by Planet Aid is focusing on how ocean pollution directly impacts humans. The information used basically describes how humans are causing their own destruction. They state how the toxic chemicals and oils that are in the ocean definitely affect the fish because they’re swimming around in it. But now those fish are plucked from the ocean and put on our plates. This shows how ocean pollution affects more than jst sea life, but the economy, and the human race itself.

How I used it: I used this source for the stat that states, “the ocean “provides over 70 percent of the oxygen we breathe and over 97 percent of the world’s water supply”. This stat was important to me because it showed how we are so reliant on the ocean’s resources to us, yet we voluntarily pollute, knowing the results will go back to us in the end.

US Department of Commerce, & National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2008, October 08). What is the biggest source of pollution in the ocean? Retrieved March 31, 2019, from https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/pollution.html

Background: The National Ocean Service explains in this source how ocean pollution starts way before it reaches the ocean. It states how cars and other vehicles drop oils and chemicals onto the beach through roads and parking lots that eventually find their way into the sea.

How I used it: I used this source because it stated, ““Eighty percent of pollution to the marine environment comes from the land”. This stat was important because I said in my paper that humans are the cause of their own destruction and that’s because we put the most trash in the ocean and we benefit from the ocean the second most after the sea animals that live in it.

Ell, K. (2018, July 10). Paper straws cost ‘may be 10 times’ more than plastic straws, says paper straw distributor. Retrieved March 31, 2019, from https://www.cnbc.com/2018/07/09/paper-straws-are-better-for-the-environment-but-they-will-cost-you.html

Background: The CNBC news network reports on the damages of plastic straws versus paper straws. They state how harmful the plastic straws are to the environment because of how it affects the ocean, but how it’s cheaper so that’s why companies mass produce them instead of paper straws that are a little more costly but safer for the environment.

How I used it: I used this source because of their information that said, “it only cost half a cent to produce each straw, but it cost 2½ cents to make paper straws which are safer for the environment.” This proves to me how we’re moving backwards as a society with the things we care about and choose to spend money on. Producing paper straws would be safer but it something that would help the world is viewed as too expensive but to expand tech companies which produces more pollution is always getting more money poured into them.

Langone, A. (2018, July 23). No One Knew How Many Plastic Straws Americans Use Every Day. Then a 9-Year-Old Kid Did the Math. Retrieved March 31, 2019, fromhttp://money.com/money/5343736/how-many-plastic-straws-used-every-day/

Background: This source was from Money Magazine and it was based on a project done by a nine year old boy who found out the number of straws used in America a day. The answer he estimated was around 5oo million. The rest of the article is spreading awareness to stop this from expanding into larger numbers.

How I used it: I used this source to show how 500 million straws are being used  day and we have to stop mass producing them because most likely they all end up in the ocean or on land fills. But the response to the 500 million straws a day was very negative. Some people said it wa too low of a number to even worry about the problem. I asked  in my paper what number has to be high enough for people to take action to help the environment,

Klein, A., & ENVIRONMENT. (2018, August 10). New Zealand becomes the latest country to ban plastic bags. Retrieved March 31, 2019, fromhttps://www.newscientist.com/article/2176417-new-zealand-becomes-the-latest-country-to-ban-plastic-bags/

Background: The New Scientist news source focused on the plastic ban that many countries are putting into place as a response to ocean pollution. It goes into detail about New Zealand that began this ban recently in 2007. They pushed to replace all plastic single use bags into reusable polyester bags that are safer for the environment.

How I used it: I used this source because it speaks on how some countries have seen the need for a change after realizing what the effects of their actions are ricocheting back to them. My point was that if some people see the damages, why isn’t there more countries that are implementing this ban on plastic bags as well.  

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