annotated bibliography-honeysucklelilac

Annotated Bibliography

Bahareh Zamani, Gustav Sandin, Greg M. Peters, Life cycle assessment of clothing libraries: can collaborative consumption reduce the environmental impact of fast fashion?, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 162, 2017, Pages 1368-1375, ISSN 0959-6526

Background: This article discusses one solution to lessen the environmental impacts of fashion and lengthen the practical service life of clothes is collaborative consumption. Collaborative consumption is consumers exchanging the ownership distribution of a resource for a fee or other compensation. This includes when a resource is borrowed, swapped, traded or rented. Collaborative consumption is part of the sharing economy.

How I Used It: This article helped me define collaborative consumption and how to describe it as a solution to lessening the amount of clothing that ends up in landfills. I used it as a way to explain that this example of consumerism can help lengthen the lifespan of clothes. 

Bennett, Roger (2003),  “Factors Underlying the Inclination to Donate to Particular Types of Charity,” International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing,” Vol. 8, pp. 12-29.

Background: This study surveyed 250 people in central London and asked them what charity they would donate to if given a certain amount of money. The respondents were then asked questions regarding their personal values. 

How I Used It: From this study I found that 60% of donations come from those aged 60-70 years old. From that I concluded that younger generations are not donating clothes as they buy new ones.

Commerce statistics for individuals.  Retrieved April 12, 2021. 

Background: This article provided information on the popularity of online shopping in the EU. Each age group was found to have an increased percentage of online shopping over the last 10 years. 

How I Used It: It was found in the article that those aged 16-24 had the largest increase of online shopping at 29%. I used this information to further my point that younger generations are driving the emergence of fast fashion websites. 

Greenhouse gas emissions from a typical passenger vehicle. (2018, May 10). Retrieved May 01, 2021, from Greenhouse gas emissions from a typical passenger vehicle.

Background: This article from the EPA discusses the average greenhouse gas emissions from a car. There were other links included that answered questions based on how much tailpipe carbon dioxide is created from burning one gallon of gas and driving one mile. 

How I Used It: I used the statistic that a typical vehicle emits 4.6 metric tons of carbon dioxide per year. I used this statistic to further my argument that textile recycling centers produce more carbon dioxide when compared to using a car to drop off clothes at a thrift store.

Howell, Rachel (2020, October 10)  Gen z’s pressure to keep up with fashion trends.  Retrieved April 12, 2021.

Background: This article discusses the pressures Generation Z undertakes in order to keep up with fashion trends. With the emergence of social media, it is increasingly difficult to fit in with one’s peers. The author also notes that fashion can have a damaging effect on young people as fashion and one’s image has an impact on someone’s lifestyle.

How I Used It: I used quotes from this article to strengthen my claim that young generations are driving the fast fashion websites. I connected the need for validation to increased buying of clothes in order to stay in style. Also most teenagers cannot afford to buy “good” quality clothes that are in style so they turn to fast fashion websites to get similar clothes at a much lower price, and once the clothes are out of style they have no issue throwing them away because of the little amount of money they spent on the items.  

Joung, H.-M. (2014), “Fast-fashion consumers’ post-purchase behaviors” , International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 42 No. 8, pp. 688-697.

Background: This paper focused on the behaviors of consumers who bought from fast fashion companies. The relationships explored were disposing, hoarding, participation in recycling and the consumers’ attitudes towards the environment. 

How I Used It: I used the conclusion of the paper that consumers have a positive attitude towards the environment but don’t act on their feelings. From this information I concluded that consumers of fast fashion want to contribute positively to the environment, they just lack the knowledge of how to do so. 

Laitala K. and Klepp I.G. Age and active life of clothing. (2016, October 27). Retrieved April 12, 2021.

Background: The author conducted a study to measure the life span and active use period of clothing. The article used data from 620 items of clothing across 16 households in the timespan of six months. 

How I Used It: The study found that out of the 620 articles of clothing 50 of them were never used, allowing me to conclude that consumers buy more clothes than they use even on a monthly basis. The data provided from the study also allowed me to narrow down the age group of those who most frequently got rid of clothes to be teenagers and young adults. 

NPR/Marist poll: Amazon is a Colossus in a nation of shoppers. (2018, June 06). Retrieved April 12, 2021. 

Background: The article found that Amazon is dominating the world of all online shoppers. The key notes of why those who were served shop online is due to convenience and speed. Several statistics were stated in the article stating the percentage of consumers who buy through Amazon and why they do so.

How I Used It: I used a specific statistic from the article in my research paper, “84% of Americans have purchased clothes or shoes from a digital retailer.” This statistic allowed me to further my claim that the majority of America has turned to online shopping over the past few years.

Ro, Christine. Can fashion ever be sustainable? Retrieved May 01, 2021, from Can fashion ever be sustainable? 

Background: This article discusses how most people buy several pieces of cheap clothing instead of investing in one item that costs more but will last longer. It discusses ways consumers can be more conscious of their clothing choices to lessne their environmental impact. Also, the article talks about how some manufacturers are looking into how to recycle jeans to reduce their environmental impact.

How I Used It: I picked out a statistic from the article that stated that as much as 10% of greenhouse gasses come from human activity. I used this statistic to emphasize my point that consumers should be paying attention to what happens to their clothes when they throw the items away. 

Semba, T., Sakai, Y., Ishikawa, M., & Inaba, A. (2020). Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions by Reusing and Recycling Used Clothing in Japan. Sustainability, 12(19), 8214. doi:10.3390/su12198214

Background: This article states that in 2015 there was 1.2 billion tons of greenhouse gas emissions from fabric manufacturing. The authors stated that this number needed to be reduced by reusing and recycling used clothing. The five solutions they looked into were reuse overseas, textile recycling to wipers, fiber recycling, chemical recycling and thermal recycling. 

How I Used It: I specifically looked at the data for reclaimed and thrifted clothes and the carbon emissions compared to the carbon emissions created from textile recycling. The carbon emissions from reclaimed and thrifted clothes was almost half of that to recycled textiles. I used this information to point out that thrift stores are the most environmentally friendly option to get rid of clothes. 

 Textiles: Material-specific data.  (2020, October 07). Retrieved March 08, 2021

Background: This article states that the main source of textile waste comes from discarded clothing. There were statistics stated in the article that estimated the generation of textile in 2018 was 17 million tons.

How I used It: This article helped me provide evidence to show how much clothing is placed in landfills every year. I also used it to demonstrate how little of the clothing that is produced is actually recycled. 

Young, R., & Hagan, A. (2019, December 03).The environmental cost of fashion.  Retrieved May 01, 2021 

Background: This article focuses on the Fashion Revolution and how it has become the world’s largest activism movement. The organization hosts events and tries to pressure brands to avoid human right abuse and environmental degradation throughout their supply chain. The article also makes points that fast fashion cycles add large amounts of waste to the environment. 

How I Used It: I used a quote from Carry Somers, founder and global operations director of the nonprofit organization Fashion Revolution , “Even extending the life of our garments by an extra nine months of active use would reduce the carbon, water and waste footprint by around 20% to 30% each.” This quote furthered my argument that reusing clothes by donating them is the best option for clothes after the first owner no longer has use for them. 

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