Chau, Derek. (2019, March 10). COMMENTARY: Grades must reflect mastery, not just effort. Retrieved October 14, 2020, from

Background: In this article, the main focus is that grades reflect mastery, not just effort. This argument kind of rebuttals my hypothesis, showing that these grading systems are the right solution and should remain in the system. In the post, the author states, ” Students’ grades on assignments and report cards too often are based on the effort they make in class, not the mastery of what they need to learn by a given grade”. This is one of the leading arguments for making it an equal system, as most strict professors and teachers do not give grades if the work isn’t optimal and isn’t what the assignment was described, which ruins the dedication and the enthusiasm for actually learning the material. Even if college professors were generous with this, it would still be wrong, as the students need to be taking the courses they need to learn in order to succeed in life and in their career paths, as taking courses that don’t have any effect on the students future and is just a letter grade is wrong, and could put the student into a harmful position.

How I used it: This reference is part of an important system, as the students make an effort to actually learn the information are the ones who do end up succeeding rather than the students who don’t make an effort are the ones who get hurt by it. College professors focus on teaching the students the material they are proficient on, while the students mostly focus on getting the letter grade, which is the wrong way but sadly been the only way in the education system. I used this through almost all my papers, as it is a key argument into why the system isn’t right currently. 


Carmel Martin, Ulrich Boser. “A Quality Approach to School Funding.” Center for American Progress,

Background: This article mostly is the proof that when money is put into the right parts of the educational system, then it leads to better student outcomes and better success. This article also talks about students in lower class communities and how much of a disadvantage they really have. The system is corrupt to a point that they need spread the wealth for everyone to have an equal chance.

How I used it: I used this in my rebuttal argument as it was one of the reasons I could back up my thesis, as it deletes the reason for equality. I used the main quote, “School funding systems should ensure equal access to core educational services”, as this really explains that it is a disadvantage to our society as a whole. 


DeWitt, Peter. “This Is What Students Want Us to Know About Pandemic Learning (Opinion).” Education Week, Education Week, 8 Dec. 2020,

Background: This article is mostly about the perspective of professionals and teachers on teaching students that don’t want to learn and how it isn’t easy at all. When it comes to teaching students that don’t have the incentive to learn because they weren’t taught that way, it becomes extremely difficult for the teachers and almost impossible to succeed. The teachers state that the students feel that they aren’t as smart as other students, making their self-esteem drop and creating an unsolvable issue.

How I used it: I used it in my rebuttal argument, as it is very important to show the teachers perspectives in the matter of teaching. Sometimes, no matter how much effort the teachers put into helping these types of students, it becomes inevitable and difficult to succeed in this. 


Gewertz, Catherine. “H.S. Dropouts Say Lack of Motivation Top Reason to Quit.” Education Week, Education Week, 1 Dec. 2020,

Background: This article explains reasons on why students drop out of schools, and its mostly due to lack of motivation. This has been built systemically, as students often give in at some point as they just are learning information they aren’t interested in, and have nothing to do with their futures. As dropping out of high school is a terrible idea, most of these students have other visions on their future success, and don’t really care about their diplomas in the first place. 

How I used it: I used this in my definition argument paper, as it was important for me to use it in that paper as it shows that even students in high school drop out because of the lack of motivation they have attained. The students just want to learn what helps them succeed overall, and they just aren’t in their high schools. 


Inspired Education. Why Textbooks Don’t Work Anymore – and What Does. 7 Sept. 2018,

Background: This source basically speaks about how textbooks aren’t the best solution and should be only used as an option for educational services throughout the country, as its proven that it isn’t the best way to teach students. Not all students learn through reading, and a lot learn through visual methods, co ed methods, and peer to peer as well. This article is very useful as it shows that there’s always more than one option of teaching in way where people can be comfortable.


Lash, J. (2020, March 30). Why do schools use grades that teach nothing? Retrieved October 14, 2020, from

Background: This article explains the reasoning behind grading, and how actual students react to it. The author quotes, “Grades tell students the absolute minimum about their abilities; they tell them only whether they have earned enough points under a teacher’s rubric to get a good mark.” This means that the students aren’t learning for the sake of learning, they are learning for a good mark on their report cards, sort of like labels. They stated that this one teaching at a large state university, reported feeling appalled by the number of students who want to do the bare minimum with the goal just to pass. They explain that they need to create “evaluations” for students, give them goals and rewards that encourage them to learn even if they can’t get the hang of the subject. Rewards are not only letter grades, is what the education system gets wrong. There needs to be an even exchange of effort and reward, creating a system where everyone has an incentive to become successful.

How I used it: This is very important, as I didn’t use this topic as much in my essays but it is very important. It’s the fact that most students seek a reward in return for the work and time they sacrificed in order to succeed. Most students, the only reward is that letter grade, but there is no other reward. That’s where some students get unenthused, and turn to not caring about it at all. 


McAllister, Peter. A Teacher’s Perspective on What’s Wrong with Our Schools. (2018, February 08). Retrieved October 14, 2020, from

Background: The first idea i thought would be the most important is to see how actual teachers and professors feel about this situation. Teachers understand this, and they understand how students feel about taking courses they don’t think they need to for their relevant futures. As said in the article, “Students frequently cut corners for the sake of some short‐​term gain. If they thought that the rewards were high enough, students violated rules that they would not have violated otherwise”. Lots of teachers don’t teach students some material, as in NY for example, its stated, “A teacher in the same school pointed out that he did not teach history because it did not help his students pass the New York State Regents examination in social studies”. Another problem which teachers acknowledge in public schools is that they aren’t experts in the subjects that they teach. Although it isn’t the main issue, it demotivates students to learn, only focusing on the grade instead of learning and wanting to learn the material.

How I used it: I used this in my causal essay, as it helped me give an example of low income quality communities, and how the education system actually is in these places. It shows that it does give disadvantages to the system, creating cuts and hindrances between students with less privileges than others. 

How I used it: I used this mostly in my rebuttal, as it helped me decipher the best way to educate most students, instead of using the most comfortable way with textbooks. Personally, I learn the best with visual explanations, but a lot of students learn better personally with the teacher, and co ed methodology which is found a lot in this study. 


Ngo, E. (2018, December 28). How can we change the education system as we know? Retrieved October 14, 2020, from

Background: This is kind of someone’s professional opinion, as it explains what advances and what could change the education system for the better, instead of making it a solely a competition based system, to make it a competitive system that gives opportunities for students to be passionate about what they learn. The author quotes,” It was not until I prepared for my US college application, when I was asked about my non-academic interests, that I realized all I knew (and cared about) was getting good grades: I no longer read books, rarely cared about news, and hardly inquired about the world around me. And despite having some academic achievements, I possessed too few useful skills — skills that are necessary for one to succeed in life such as critical thinking, problem-solving, decision making, and social skills”. This shows one of the biggest problems in education systems today, as he had few skills for his future even though he had good grades and possessed all he needed to know for the future of his education, bit he didn’t know the right decision making and logic problem solving to get himself in check.

How I used it: This shows the outcome of how the students became after giving up on school, as their IQ’s, and actual knowledge went low from just not caring about the work. I used this in all my essays, as it is the actual effect of the loss of incentive between all students, not matter which school. If the students lose incentive to learn, this is the number one outcome of it, creating a totally uneven system. 


Radović-Marković, Mirjana. “Corruption in Education: A Major Issue.” Waas Masthead, 13 Dec. 2020,

Background: This resource I used showed me the typical fraud that is show in the education system, giving money to the rich and privileged neighborhoods whom get better education, better teaching, better material for learning, and better incentives to learn. This ruins the system of “equality” in total. This source states that the 21st century uses a knowledge based economy, not an individual knowledge based economy. Only by judgment, It overall ruins the system making it unfair for people to thrive if they were born into a family with the not the best privileges.

How I used it: I used it in almost all my papers, as it shows that it’s an uneven distribution of wealth in the system. It shows that some students get better privileges, although it does prove that wealthier lifestyles show better results, it’s unfair to unwealthy lifestyles by not giving them a good chance as well. 


Teacher incentive programs can improve student achievement. (2019, July 23). Retrieved October 14, 2020, from

Background: This article shows different ways that teachers can change their school environment to give incentives for students to achieve their goals. This is useful, as teachers can get compensation for how well their students do, which promote them to teach the best that they can, every year improving. This article gives an example of a program that changes the curriculum of the school, changing the way teachers teach in the school. The author states that, “Clusters of less experienced teachers meet daily with highly skilled teachers to learn new instructional strategies and receive individual coaching”. 

How I used it: This shows that as teachers learn new ways to engage the students, they are coached by the best teachers. Usually, this isn’t the case, as a lot of low income communities don’t have the best education, and simply don’t have the money to get the best education, especially for the teachers, not just the students. I used this in my rebuttal argument, as it helped me show how students actually engage in school. 

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