Source 1:  Brooks, David . 2019. “The Cruelty of Call-Out Culture.” New York Times, January 14.

Background: This is an opinion article. The author of the article recalls a podcast that told the story of Emily, a member of a hard core punk band and how she basically disowned her bestfriend after an accusation was made about him. Only for her a few years later have the same scenario happen to her and she lost everything. Then how her accuser relishes in her pain and doesn’t care what happens to her next. The author then goes on to say how through these incidents society stops looking at these people like humans and more like the embodiments of good vs evil.

How I used it: This article was the first source that I used to help form my idea in regards to how cancel culture could target anyone and how it dehumanizes the cancelled. I mainly used it in my definition essay to expand upon the idea of cancel culture and the reach it possess. This article also exposed me to the NPR podcast episode it was based around, giving me another essential source that was used in my definition essay.

Source 2: The callout. (2018, April 13). Retrieved April 19, 2021, from

Background: The callout is an episode of the npr podcast which recalls the story of a girl named Emily who was part of the hard-core punk music scene in Richmond, VA. One night she was traveling with her best friend who was part of a popular band heading to a gig in Florida. During the trip the venue cancelled their appearance because a women accused Emily’s bestfriend of sending unwelcomed sexually explicit photos. While his band mates dismissed her allegations Emily would go on to denounce her best friend as an abuser through a callout(a early form of cancel culture). She would lead the forefront into cancelling him which worked. She heard rumors about him getting fired, evicted from his apartment, and had to move to a new city. Fast forward several years later Emily herself would get called out for a body shamming comment she made in a group chat back in highschool over a decade ago. The same consequences that happened to her former friend happened to her. The person who called her out reveled that by doing so he received a rush from his actions and that he didn’t care what happened to her. The podcast also covered the idea of callouts and how they gave power to women in the punk scene.

How I used it: Like the previous source I incorporated it into my definition essay, using it as my main example to how cancel culture can reach anyone. Also including how the section of the man exposing her and not caring what happens to her as a waypoint into the idea of how the cancelers use these incidents as opportunities to trash and dehumanize the cancelled since its there fault they are in this mess.

Source 3: “What is the cost of ‘cancel culture’?”BBC News. 2020-10-08. Retrieved 2021-01-06

Background: The article from the “BBC” first covers the actions of Mr. Paulinich, a social media activist that regularly posts videos of people saying prejudice things in an attempt to cancel them. His account is gaining followers as more people come together in support. Then the article goes on discussing what cancel culture is and the effects of it on not only people, but companies and brands alike(aunt Jemima, Uncle Bens, Land o Lakes). Then finishes the article by discussing how the targets need to be able to make amends for their actions.

How I used it: For this source I mainly used it more as a reading material for my overall ideas. The ideas in this articles weren’t bad but rather the some of the ideas presented in this article were already mentioned in source one, so I mainly focused more on source 1 with those ideas presented then these source. Another reason is that while the cancellation of companies is a good point I could use in cancel culture, the cancellation of products doesn’t match well with my thesis of how people are made worse because of them being cancelled.

Source 4: Huffman, E. M. (2016). Call-out culture: How online shaming affects social media participation in young adults (Order No. 10120833). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1795577817).

Background: The document is about call out culture and how online shaming affects young adults and how they participate in social media. The document establishes that social media is filled with lurkers. (People who use social media but don’t post on it) about 90% of social media users are lurkers. It discusses and points put that the reason their are so many lurkers compared to actual participants of social media because majority of users(the lurkers) fear being publicly shamed for anything they may post online. So rather than take that risk by participating, they would much rather observe the content and posts of others. The paper also went into detail on how shaming has been used by humans dating back to the creation of the bible as a means to enforce social norms of the time period. Including examples like whipping slaves and tar and feathering colonist’s of pre-Revolutionary Boston.

How did I use it: This document was used towards the end of my Causation essay. After using an example of cancel culture creating the thing they are trying to end, I used this document to explain a side effect of cancel culture on social media. How people, specifically teens and young adults are participating less in social media out fear of being cancelled(or publicly shamed as the document puts it). I use the states in the document in order to show how the lurkers likely viewed someone they knew get cancelled and decided that the best ay to avoid the same fate is to do nothing online.

Source 5:Trottier, D. (2018). Coming to terms with shame: Exploring mediated visibility against transgressions. Surveillance & Society, 16(2), 170-182.

Background:The text is a “report” on public shaming and its creation, use in todays society, what exactly it is and if we overstep our boundaries with it. It also covers and distinguishes the differences between social/public shaming and shaming in a parent/child relationship and how they aren’t similar and that through today’s social media the shaming of our “transgressors” is out of proportion to the actions committed.

How I used it: I took an example of public shaming being used from the document and used presented it in my Definition essay . Using it as a way to show the potential effects of cancel culture as shown in the document. (Little side note: I may change the example used from this document for the definition essay during my revision of it later this week)

Source 6: Aitchison, G., & Meckled-Garcia, S. (2021).Against Online Public Shaming: Ethical Problems with Mass Social Media.: EBSCOhost ( 47(1), 1–31.

Background: The article covers how the mass online gatherings of people who desire to ruin the life of someone that did or said something they didn’t agree with and how even though the people who said/did the thing may be wrong in what they did, that doesn’t make it justifiable in how their lives are basically ended by these crowds. It also covers hypothetical case of a women who, through the use of social media, makes a post that isn’t to well received and proceeds to run through what would typically happen in a situation like this. Explaining the process that occurs and how she would be systematically picked apart from all angles.

How I used it: Originally I was planning to include it in the Causation essay, however during the first draft I determined to rather focus on the lurking on social media subject rather than include this source.

Source 7:Gypsy crusader origin story. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2021, from

Background: This video is a explanation given by Paul Miller, more commonly known by his online persona Gypsy Crusader in his transformation into a supremacist. During his video he explains how cancel culture systematically destroyed his life and threatened his family following a altercation he had with members of Antifa back in 2018. That through cancel culture Millers life was forever altered and felling powerless to this change did the only thing he felt he still had the power to do. He turned into a white Supremacist and would openly call people racial and sexual slurs online as a way of living. As he explains in his video, it was through his actions that he felt like he was able to take back some kind of control.

How I used it: The video was a primary source in my Causation essay as to show an example of how cancel culture creates the vary thing they are trying to stop. Paul Miller’s fall from average citizen to major online racist because of cancel culture serves as a great example to demonstrate why cancel culture doesn’t work. It also serves as another example of just how much the cancelled are dehumanized with cancelers actually traveling to his mothers house in order to threaten her with violence.

Source 8: Shaming smokers can backfire — journal report. (2020, Jun 08). Dow Jones Institutional News Retrieved from

Background: This document is a study that experimented with shaming smokers and observing their reactions to the negative comments. During the experiment the group that was exposed to the negative stereotypes associated with smoking were shown to be much more likely to smoke than people who weren’t exposed to those negative messages. The document goes onto to discuss that the reason for the outcome is attributed to the a phycological phenomenon known as a stereotype threat. Where people are so anxious about being identified in a negative way that they end up confirming the behaviors they are trying to avoid. Basically like a self filling prophecy.

How I used it: During the Rebuttal essay I mentioned the study and its results due as a way to tie it together with cancelled people becoming racist. If smokers are more likely to smoke because they facing negative backlash for their behavior, then by that same idea and the Stereotype threat phenomenon people who are cancelled for things they said or do are just as likely to become racist.

Source 9: Vujić, K. (2021, April 05). A guide to the many, many scandals of James Charles. Retrieved April 12, 2021, from

Background: The article is list of several different accusations James Charles has faced over the last few years that all relate to cancelable offenses. The same article explains how James keeps getting accused of some questionable actions and how despite all that, he keeps seemingly to be able to weasel out of being cancelled, even when he openly admitted to grooming minors.

How I used it: I included the information in this article for my Rebuttal essay in order to show how James keeps avoiding being cancelled despite his behavior. He seemed like a perfect example to how cancel culture misses certain people. Especially due to the nature of his accusation, usually including some sort of sexual behavior to it.

Source 10: Holding myself accountable. (2021, April 01). Retrieved April 12, 2021, from

Background: This is the video James Charles posted following his most recent accusation of grooming minors. This video is basically him telling the events that transpired from his point of view, but during it he openly admits to flirting with the minors he was accused of, but makes an excuse that they lied about how old they were when they first started talking.

How I used it: During the Rebuttal essay I used it very closely with source 9. Explaining how despite his confession the cancel culture community have been ignoring this transpiring story.

Source11: Reilly, W. Are Hate Crime Hoaxers Above the Law? . Acad. Quest. 32, 553–561 (2019).

Background: This article retells how back in 2019 then popular TV actor Jussie Smollett faked a being attacked by white racist’s. Following the incident Jussie was swarmed with support from the media and fellow celebrities. However as time progressed it was discovered the he hired people and faked it in order for him to gain popularity. Then as he prepares for trial he was dismissed on all charges despite the over whelming evidence being raised against him. The article then continues on to how

How I used it: This article was implemented as another example during the Rebuttal essay. This one was more focused on racial issues. Also it was a way to tie in the potential reason as to why certain celebrities don’t get cancelled, also for this situation not only did cancel culture not go after him but the media avoided him at all costs following him being exposed.

Source 12: Snyder, J. (2020). Backlash against human rights shaming: Emotions in groupsInternational Theory, 12(1), 109-132. doi:10.1017/S1752971919000216

Background: A short article that explains how Human rights groups are using shaming as a central tool to their cause even though they are aware its declining in effectiveness. The article explains that if shaming is continued to be used by these groups then it will lead to the creation of counternarratives that will become a resistance to the movement. Shaming may leave human rights groups farther from their goals.

How I used it: This was used alongside Source 8 in the Rebuttal essay. It worked well with Source 8, playing along with the idea of stereotype threat as well. Not only supporting itself better but Source 8 since it allows the idea of stereotype threat to transfer from smokers to Cancel culture.

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