Annotated Bibliography – Mhmokaysure

Cervantes, L. F. (2012). Drivers license requirements and road safety: Evidence from a natural experiment in Mexico (Unpublished master’s thesis). doi:

Background: The level of difficulty in acquiring one’s license varies across the world. What correlates with this however is the rate of accidents among new drivers. In his thesis, Cervantes analyzes the different standards for acquiring a license throughout different parts of Mexico. Comparing this data with the accident rates among new drivers, Cervantes shows the seemingly obvious conclusion that the less practice and requirements to receive a license there are, the higher the accident rates that follow.

How I used it: In showing the difference between the preparation to acquire a license, I used Cervantes’ writing to further support my claims. Having not only shown the differences between the United States and Germany, I show the effects of such a disparity in regulations and requirements by showing the data of such events in Mexico.

Delgado, M. K., Wanner, K. J., & McDonald, C. (n.d.). Adolescent Cellphone Use While Driving: An Overview of the Literature and Promising Future Directions for Prevention. Retrieved December 11, 2020, from

Background: Distracted driving is a problem seen across the world. More specifically, with advancements in technology, we have seen more and more drivers operate vehicles while using cell phones. Doing so takes away vital seconds needed to react to events occurring on the road, leading to higher accident rates. The largest group of offenders of cellphone use while driving is the youngest age group of drivers, with a survey showing that 83% of highschool drivers admitting to using a cellphone while driving.

How I used it: By showing the disparity between cellphone use while driving among different age groups, I was able to use this to back the higher accident rates among the same age group. Showing the statistics behind this, I was able to correlate increased cellphone use while driving to higher accident rates, supporting the claim made in that paragraph.

Ferguson, S. A. (2002, December 24). Other high-risk factors for young drivers-how graduated licensing does, doesn’t, or could address them. Retrieved December 11, 2020, from

Background: In recent years, many states have adapted a GDL or graduated driver’s license as the method of acquiring one’s license. This involves multiple steps with different stages of restrictions, aimed at eventually preparing a young driver for the road. Although a good concept, it is not without its flaws, as many of the restrictions are often not enforced, or simply not known to those driving. This source shows some of the aspects behind this system, while highlighting ways it can be improved.

How I Used It: By having previously shown the shortcomings of the process to acquire a driver’s license in the United States, this source allowed me to go in depth on some of the biggest issues faced. By using this information, I was able to strengthen my points regarding the process behind gradually preparing young drivers, showing that it is ineffective and needs to be changed. (2020, October 06). Distracted Driving. Retrieved December 11, 2020, from

Background: Distracted driving is an issue seen across the entire country. In fact, there have been multiple nationwide as well as state level campaigns aimed at reducing the amount of distracted drivers. Even with these attempts, the amount of accidents involving a distracted driver remains high in the United States, as shown by the statistics in this government report.

How I Used It: In combination with the article showing that teenage drivers are more likely to operate vehicles while using a cellphone, I used this statistic as a second source to back this. Not only do teenagers use cellphones while driving, they are more prone to other distractions, which is highlighted by this source, allowing me to strengthen my position in my writing.

McCartt, A. T., Shabanova, V. I., & Leaf, W. A. (2002, February 01). Driving experience, crashes and traffic citations of teenage beginning drivers. Retrieved December 11, 2020, from

Background: Teenagers, more than any other age group are more likely to be involved in a traffic accident within their first three months of having a license than any other age group. Teenage males are at higher risk than females, stemming from an increase in risky behavior on the roads, while still lacking the experience required to safely drive. Teenage males are also more likely to receive a citation for a traffic violation than any other age group or gender.

How I used it: Arguing that teenage drivers lack the experience and skills to safely operate vehicles, I was able to use the statistics shown in this piece to emphasize that. Showing the likelihood of a teenage driver being involved in an accident in their first months of driving is astronomically higher than that of any other demographic, I was able to strengthen my position, while presenting the reader with the proper statistics to back my claim.

Office of Highway Policy Information – Policy: Federal Highway Administration. (n.d.). Retrieved December 11, 2020, from

Background: Every year, the Federal Highway Administration releases in depth reports on accidents that occur on roads in the given year. Split into individual age groups and demographics, this data shows a clearer picture of who is involved in these accidents.

How I Used It: Having seen the official data released by the government regarding accident rates amongst drivers in the United States, I was able to analyze and strengthen my claims of teenage drivers posing a larger risk than other drivers, backing it by official statistics. 

Peterson, B. (2020, March 19). The Deadliest States for Teen Drivers. Retrieved December 11, 2020, from

St. George, D. (2010, January 24). More teens are choosing to wait to get driver’s licenses. Washington Post. Retrieved December 11, 2020, from are choosing ot wait to get driver’s licenses.pdf

Background: Compared to previous years, youth in the United States are waiting longer to acquire their drivers’ licenses as they are not being seen as a priority. In the past, acquiring one’s driver’s license was seen as a right of passage, signifying the transition to adulthood. Because of this, teens were more prepared and focused on getting their license, whereas now it is seen as a luxury more than a necessity.

How I used it: Seeing as less teens are getting their licenses, whereas the accident rates are remaining unproportionally high in the age group, I used this piece to signify that many teens are unprepared to be on the road. By not wanting to acquire a license, and not properly preparing, these teens are inexperienced and pose a danger to those around them. By using this source, I proposed a possible reason for the inexperience and lack of preparation in teenage drivers.

These U.S. States Have the Best Education Systems. (n.d.). Retrieved December 11, 2020, from

Background: In 2020, USNews released its latest education rankings for each state in the United States. In the ranking, we see that more densely populated states with larger cities tend to rank higher than more rural states.

How I used it: In an attempt to show the relationship between teen accident rates and education leading up to acquiring one’s license, I used this report to show that states ranking lower in education standard were more likely to have higher accident rates among teens. This was also used to show that higher ranking states also had lower accident rates among teens, showing the correlation between education and accident rates.

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