- Patti Tamara Lenard, P. B. (n.d.). What is (the wrong of) cultural appropriation? – Patti Tamara Lenard, Peter Balint, 2020. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1468796819866498?journalCode=etna
Background: This article gets in-depth with what it means to be culturally appropriating and challenges if it is wrongful. The author, Patti Lenard, explains why it is an essential social and political topic to be debated on and breaks down the fundamentals of what cultural appropriation is, why it is wrong, and what someone must do to appropriate something. However, Lenard also questions if cultural appropriation is a bad thing because it contributes to cultural interaction.
How I Used It: This article gave me more information on understanding cultural appropriation and how it significantly impacts a country’s interaction with another culture and its evolution. However, I used cultural appropriation information to discuss the inconsideration of using elements from an oppressed culture to become a commercial success.
- Weiss, B. (2017, August 30). Three Cheers for Cultural Appropriation. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/30/opinion/cultural-appropriation.html?smid=em-share
Background: The author of The New York Times article argues that many great ideas come from culturally appropriating. She uses various examples of the many things and ideas stolen by countries, celebrities, and activists that were either deemed as appropriating culture or wholly disregarded because of the impact it left behind.
How I Used It: I used the article as evidence to point out that even if Korean artists use a different genre for their music, there is evidence of them using Black hip hop culture to create new concepts when promoting their songs as an aesthetic for their pop songs.
- Oh, C. (2014, September). Performing Post-Racial Asianness: K-Pop’s Appropriation of Hip-Hop Culture. ResearchGate. Retrieved November 16, 2020, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279274576_Performing_Post-Racial_Asianness_K-Pop%27s_Appropriation_of_Hip-Hop_Culture
Background: The article argues that Korean pop is not making fun of American or Black hip hop culture. The author tries to indicate the “Asian-ness” of K-pop, a blend of gender neutrality, and all cultures’ adaptation.
How I Used It: The article gave me a good list of things Korean artists have done with the hip-hop genre that is considered cultural appropriation. This article gives good evidence on their lack of understanding of the significance of the genre.
- Ramsey, F., Warren, J., & Owerka-Moore, A. (n.d.). Cultural Appropriation [PDF]. https://bento.cdn.pbs.org/hostedbento-prod/filer_public/whatihear/9-Cultural_Approp-Viewing_Guide.pdf
Background: This article discusses what it means to culturally appropriate and how cultural exchange and assimilation are associated with it. The article also gives examples of people culturally appropriating from Black culture to demonstrate how it is a problem that people can exploit an oppressed culture.
How I Used It: This article was the first article I have read that gave me a better understanding of cultural appropriation. It was used to explain the definition of cultural appropriation in order to clarify how it differs from cultural appreciation.
- Rogers, R. A. (2006, November). From Cultural Exchange to Transculturation: A Review and Reconceptualization of Cultural Appropriation. ResearchGate. Retrieved November 16, 2020, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227630287_From_Cultural_Exchange_to_Transculturation_A_Review_and_Reconceptualization_of_Cultural_Appropriation
Background: The article’s author, Richard A. Rogers, explains the four categories of cultural appropriation: exchange, dominance, exploitation, and transculturation. In addition, he discusses the underlying impact appropriation has on culture, its power structure, and the political and ethical implications.
How I Used It: The author contextualizes the complexities of societal struggles for power and the subterfuge of oppressed communities. This comparison provided the basis for an overview of the terms and a comprehensive overview of the societal dilemmas of cultural exploitation and cultural dominance.
- Tummons, J. P. (2008). Cultural Assimilation, Appropriation and Commercialization: Authenticity in Rap Music, 1997–2004. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2008. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/304448031?pq-origsite=summon
Background: This article by Jonathan Tummons discusses the authenticity in the lyrics in rap music has changed from 1997-2004. It mentions that Africans have used music to express their oppression and to maintain their cultural identity. However, rap music’s authenticity has changed because cultural appropriation made it a part of popular culture.
How I Used It: I used this article to provide supportive evidence that Black music is exploited and commercialized for economic gain. The article supports black artists’ heightened concerns and the blatant use of black culture as a means of economic gains without attribution.
- Eun-byel, I. (2018, February 23). [Weekender] Dress down to be hip, hop on fashion stage. The Korean Herald. Retrieved from http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20180223000497
Background: The article talks about hip hop’s clothing style becoming a popular street fashion in South Korea. It mentions how Koreans would try to take any clothing piece to emulate other hip hop artists’ style.
How I Used It: The article provides another example of the implications of economic benefits from selling hip hop inspired clothing for more affordable prices. The article also highlights examples of Korean citizens’ use of hip hop clothing style as a fashion statement when the symbolism behind this style involves a culture’s oppression.
- de Luna, E. (2020, July 20). ‘They use our culture’: The Black creatives and fans holding K-pop accountable. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/music/2020/jul/20/k-pop-black-fans-creatives-industry-accountable-race
Background: The article discusses the lack of consideration the Korean music industry continuously has for Black lives and their culture. It mentions that the industry has little contribution towards supporting Black lives, and it is ironic that Korean artists heavily rely on Black artists and their culture for their success.
How I Used It: The article was used as an example of cultural exploitation to demonstrate Korea’s music industry’s lack of consideration for Black culture. The author provides evidence of the economic exploitation of music moguls. It explores the plight of western black artists. Lack of cultural attribution and economic remuneration creates conflict between the Korean music industry and western hip hop artists.
- Matthes, E. (2018). Cultural appropriation and oppression. Philosophical Studies, 176(4), 1003–1013. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s11098-018-1224-2
Background: The author of this article, Matthes Erich Hatala, argues that people are not only culturally appropriating, but they prey on minority groups that are incapable of advocating for themselves.
How I Used It: This article highlights the inequalities and oppressive nature of cultural oppression. The article was used to argue that cultural appropriation preys on those who have less power.
- Han, H. (2019). Moving From Cultural Appropriation to Cultural Appreciation. Art Education (Reston), 72(2), 8–13. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/00043125.2019.1559575
Background: This article discusses what it means to both culturally appropriate and appreciate multiple modalities of art forms. The author highlights unacceptable art practices that identify cultural appropriation elements. Instead, teachers attempt to celebrate diversity respectfully.
How I Used It: This article is used to demonstrate appropriate ways of providing accurate attribution in a respectful manner whereby cultural appreciation is the antithesis of cultural appreciation.