- Patti Tamara Lenard, P. B. (n.d.). What is (the wrong of) cultural appropriation? – Patti Tamara Lenard, Peter Balint, 2020. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1468796819866498?journalCode=etna
Background: This article gets in-depth with what it means to be culturally appropriating and challenges if it is wrongful. The author, Patti Lenard, explains why it is an essential social and political topic to be debated on and breaks down the fundamentals of what cultural appropriation is, why it is wrong, and how it is led to it. However, Lenard also questions if cultural appropriation is a bad thing because it contributes to cultural interaction.
How I Used It: This article gave me more information on understanding cultural appropriation and how it significantly impacts a country’s interaction with another culture and how they evolve from it. However, I used cultural appropriation information to discuss the inconsideration of using elements from an oppressed culture to become a commercial success.
- Weiss, B. (2017, August 30). Three Cheers for Cultural Appropriation. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/30/opinion/cultural-appropriation.html?smid=em-share
Background: The author of The New York Times article argues that many great ideas come from culturally appropriating. She uses various examples of the many things and ideas stolen by countries, celebrities, and activists that were either deemed as appropriating culture or wholly disregarded because of the impact it left behind.
How I Used It: I used the article to point out how, despite Korean artists using the pop genre instead of the hip hop genre, they still use Black hip hop culture to create new concepts when promoting their songs for an aesthetic.
- Oh, C. (2014, September). Performing Post-Racial Asianness: K-Pop’s Appropriation of Hip-Hop Culture. ResearchGate. Retrieved November 16, 2020, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279274576_Performing_Post-Racial_Asianness_K-Pop%27s_Appropriation_of_Hip-Hop_Culture
Background: The article argues that Korean pop is not making fun of American or Black hip hop culture. The author tries to indicate the “Asian-ness” of K-pop, a blend of gender neutrality, and all cultures’ adaptation.
How I Used It: I used this article as a reference for myself to emphasize how Korean artists appropriate Black hip hop culture and how they still lack the understanding of how significant the genre is.
- Cultural Appropriation [PDF]. (n.d.). https://bento.cdn.pbs.org/hostedbento-prod/filer_public/whatihear/9-Cultural_Approp-Viewing_Guide.pdf
Background: This article discusses what it means to culturally appropriate and how cultural exchange and assimilation are associated with it. The article also gives examples of people culturally appropriating from Black culture to demonstrate how it is a problem that people are capable of exploiting an oppressed culture.
How I Used It: This article was the first article I have read that gave me a better understanding of cultural appropriation. It was used to explain the definition of cultural appropriation in order to clarify how it differs from culturally appreciating.
- Rogers, R. A. (2006, November). From Cultural Exchange to Transculturation: A Review and Reconceptualization of Cultural Appropriation. ResearchGate. Retrieved November 16, 2020, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227630287_From_Cultural_Exchange_to_Transculturation_A_Review_and_Reconceptualization_of_Cultural_Appropriation
Background: The article’s author, Richard A. Rogers, explains the four categories of cultural appropriation: exchange, dominance, exploitation, and transculturation. In addition, he discusses the underlying impact appropriation has on culture, its power structure, and the political and ethical implications.
How I Used It: This was another article used to define cultural appropriation by discussing how cultural exploitation and dominance are significant factors in cultural appropriation.
- Shim, D. (2016). Hybridity and the rise of Korean popular culture in Asia. Media, Culture & Society, 28(1), 25–44. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443706059278
Background: This article disputes that Korean entertainment’s globalization is not necessarily impacted by U.S. influence, but rather from the blending of Southern and Southeastern Asian culture. This blending of cultural influences impacts the popularity of Korean entertainment.
How I Used It: This article assists in providing an opposing perspective relative to K-pop influences and development.
- Herald, T. K. (2018, February 23). [Weekender] Dress down to be hip, hop on fashion stage. Retrieved from http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20180223000497
Background: The article talks about how hip hop’s clothing style is a popular street fashion in South Korea. It mentions how Koreans would try to take any clothing piece that they emulate other hip hop artists’ style.
How I Used It: The article provides another example of the implications of economic benefits from selling hip hop inspired clothing for more affordable prices. In addition, it sets a good example of how Korean citizens are using the hip hop clothing style as a fashion statement when the symbolism behind this style involves a culture’s oppression.
- Luna, E. D. (2020, July 20). ‘They use our culture’: The Black creatives and fans holding K-pop accountable. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/music/2020/jul/20/k-pop-black-fans-creatives-industry-accountable-race
Background: The article discusses how the Korean music industry lacks consideration for Black lives and their culture. It mentions how the industry has little contributions towards supporting Black lives, and it is ironic that Korean artists heavily rely on Black artists and their culture for their success.
How I Used It: The article was used as an example of cultural exploitation to demonstrate how the Korean music industry lacks consideration for Black culture.
- Matthes, E. (2018). Cultural appropriation and oppression. Philosophical Studies, 176(4), 1003–1013. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s11098-018-1224-2
Background: The author of this article, Matthes Erich Hatala, argues that people are not only culturally appropriate, but they prey on minority groups that are incapable of advocating for themselves.
How I Used It: This article highlights the inequalities and oppressive nature of cultural oppression. The article argues that cultural appropriation preys on those who have less power.
- Han, H. (2019). Moving From Cultural Appropriation to Cultural Appreciation. Art Education (Reston), 72(2), 8–13. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/00043125.2019.1559575
Background: This article discusses what it means to both culturally appropriate and appreciate, how it is used in art forms, and how to identify cultural appropriation elements in it. Instead, teachers attempt to celebrate diversity respectfully.
How I Used It: This article is used to demonstrate appropriate ways of providing accurate attribution in a respectful manner whereby cultural appreciation is the antithesis of cultural appreciation.