09 Class TUE SEP 29

Wake up

Writing Mechanics

Claims

  • Another look at the Claim Types list
    • Claims defined and modeled using the article “Is PTSD Contagious?” as its subject matter.
  • Link to the Lasik Surgery Claims Demonstration
    • A lecture on claims that includes a chart for applying several claims types to your own hypothesis.
    • Hidden Link

PREP FOR THURSDAY:
Definition/Categorical Argument

  • Your Professor’s Model Definition Essay
    • Attempts to answer the question, “Does polio belong to the category of eradicable diseases?”
  • Model Definition/Categorical Essay
    • The editors of the New York Times defines a crucial constitutional term: protected class that deserves heightened scrutiny.

44 Responses to 09 Class TUE SEP 29

  1. oaktree1234 says:

    -starfish may be used for positive/negative criticism
    -should have had conference by now
    Wake Up:
    mirrors horizontally flip your image so why doesn’t it flip up and down?
    answer: a mirror does’t flip left to right it flips front to back
    Beware of IT and THIS:
    must be careful when using terms like it and this, the reader needs to know what you’re talking about.
    Claim Types:
    classical model, toulmin model, rogerian model
    -aristotle made appeals to logos- reason, pathos- emotions, and ethos- ethics
    -toulmin supported claims with grounds- evidence, based his arguments on warrants and uses “backing”
    -rogers concentrated on solving shared problems and recommending a solution
    *not all claims need to be supported*
    unstated, subtle claims for example or claims that no one will object ex: murder is bad
    Example: Ava’s eye surgery
    must convince parents or insurance to cover the cost
    problem- solution- justification
    Prep for Thursday: read through model definition essay

  2. cardinal7218 says:

    – we did an exercise that showed us how mirrors actually flip back to front and not left to write, challenging a long-held belief about a simple everyday thing.
    -we did an exercise about specific details in writing where we saw how to include specific details in our writing instead of using “it” and “this”
    -specificity is important because the reader doesn’t have all the information on a topic you have. You need to tell the reader what you know
    -Three parts of essay: definition/categorical, cause and effect, rebuttal. Different types of claims will fit with each of those types of essays
    -Aristotelian argument involves the appeals to logic (logos), emotions (pathos), and ethics (ethos). These are the basics of argument.
    -Toulmin’s type of argument is based on claims that are supported with evidence. But, the arguments are based on warrants, or the values that are the reasons for the argument existing in the first place. Then there’s backing, but really, who knows what that means
    -Rogers focused his arguments on common ground, finding misunderstandings, and finding solutions to shared problems
    -Claims are assertions that are open to challenge
    -Pretty much everything is open to challenge which should be kept in mind when researching
    -Claims can be unstated, just a single word can make an unstated claim that subtly persuades the reader
    -If no readers would dispute the claim, you don’t need to prove it (ex: murder is bad)
    -We probably want to be like Rogers. We want to be calm rather than getting into heated arguments
    -Make sure everyone actually understands what we’re talking about, find common ground, and figure out what the real disagreement is about
    -First we limit terms of argument in definition section, making sure everyone knows what we’re arguing about. Then we talk about the possible effects of our argument. Then we propose solutions
    -Claims change based on who your audience is
    -Recognize the objections you’re likely to encounter. Categorial claims combat those
    -Proposal claims: should, must, shall, shouldn’t
    -Problem/solution/justification structure
    -Problem exists (pathos), give a solution (logic), why solution should happen (ethos)

    • davidbdale says:

      These are especially good, cardinal.

      I notice the strong parallel between these two ways to phrase the same process:
      -First we limit terms of argument in definition section, making sure everyone knows what we’re arguing about. Then we talk about the possible effects of our argument. Then we propose solutions
      -Problem/solution/justification structure

      4/3

  3. runnerd4 says:

    Remember that notes are used for our participation and attendance.
    Riddle about Cindy Crawford: The mirror doesn’t actually flip horizontally, if anything, it flips front to back.
    Specific Details: Avoid IT and THIS!!! Saying those words make you feel like you said something, but you really didn’t. Add Specific details so you can remember what the article was about weeks later. When you use IT and THIS, you’re having more of a conversation with whoever reads your summary.

    Claims: Definition, categorical, and analogy can be very helpful for our first essay.
    Quantitative and Causal claims will be very helpful for our second essay.
    Recommendation or proposal claim for entire essay.

    Claim Lecture Notes:
    Aristotle
    appeals to…
    logos: Reason/logic
    pathos: Emotions
    ethos: Ethics, character and, authority
    Toulmin made CLAIMS. He then supported them with GROUNDS. He based his arguments on WARRANTS. Then in turn it rests on BACKING.
    Rogers focused on common ground and solving shared problems. He examined differences of opinion and misunderstandings and tried to find solutions that would satisfy a lot of people. Max benefit for the largest amount of people.
    Claims are open to challenge, most need to be supported with evidence, but some do not like claims that murder is bad. In this type of argument, we want to keep a calm tone and find middle ground.
    Example on lasik surgery:
    either wants her parents to pay for it or for her insurance company to pay for it
    She made categorical claims to convince her mom that the surgery is safe, effective, and that she belongs to the category of good candidates for lasik
    She used arguments based on definitional claims with her dad to prove that lasik is advanced.
    Causal claims: lasik would help her in her career path in marine biology
    Resemblance claims: lasik is now the best solution to vision problems at this point. Her parents made choices to do the most advances option for correcting eyesight
    Evaluation claims: benefits > costs
    Proposal claims using “should”
    A good solution appeals to pathos, logos, and ethos
    Categorical: is x a y?
    Definitional: What is a Y?
    Consequential: Does x cause y?
    Resemblance: Is x like y?
    Evaluation: Is x good or bad? Is x a good y?
    Proposal: Should we do X?

    When we work on our own paper, we can/should use the worksheet in the claims lecture so we can keep track of the claims we use.

    Task: Read over model definition essay and model definition/categorical essay from the ny times.

  4. jeffbezos123 says:

    Class Notes Tuesday September 29th
    Warmup
    -Mirrors do not flip immages they flip on the x axis.

    Details
    -Get away from using this and it
    -Use more details instead of these words
    -Makes paper sound better, more vivid and detail

    Claims
    -aristotle creaded the idea of Logos, pathos and ethos
    -Logos- Appeals to reason, using statistics
    -Pathos-Emotions
    -Ethos- based of ethics. charater
    Toulmin- Created the idea of claims
    The ideas backing up the claims are called warrants
    Backing- Could be a way to back up relgious belif
    Rogers- Connected the ideas of both of these men, Aristole and Toulmin
    He explained the diffrences of opinion or misunderstandings
    Then he would recommended Solutions and limitations

    Claims need to be challenged
    -they are used to try and prove that something that is correct
    -Not all claims need to be proved
    -UNSTATED CLAIMS- go unnoticed and needs no proof
    -Most readers will not challange unstated claims
    -Claims said for intended auidence does not need proof
    -Make sure your voice is the calm one in the room
    -Make sure everyone in the room understands what you are saying

    Ava wants lasik surgery. She has to make claims why the insurance company or the parents should pay

    Categorlcal Claims
    -Lasik is a safe effective surgery
    -Safe for 20 year olds
    -good canadate?

    Casual Claims
    -Glasses cause problems for divers
    -This would solve serious problems
    -Underwater research would result in professional advantages

    Resemblance Claims
    -resembles eyeglassses and contacts of the past
    -Resembles her parents youth in the past
    -Resembles the best soulution for early generations
    -The cots and risks now resemble the costs and risks of earlier remodies

    Evaluation claims
    -Risjs are minimal
    -A bargin compared to lifeling eye expences
    -Benifits are truly outweighed

    • davidbdale says:

      I’m not sure that these Notes provide an essential function for reference LATER, but they show that you were engaged in an active process of paying attention to the material and turning everything into language as you proceeded.
      4/3

  5. rowanstudent24 says:

    9/29 Notes:
    – Provide specific details with purposeful summaries.
    – Aristotle invented argument.
    – A claim doesn’t always need evidence.
    – Evaluation question should be answered with evaluation claims.

  6. clementine102 says:

    –My Notes–
    – The Mirror Complex –
    -The common misconception about mirrors is that when looking at an image that is “flipped”, people think it is flipped horizontally when in reality, it is flipped front to back. It is also so hard to talk ourselves out of the illusion because our eyes know when something is flipped or not because when looking into a mirror it is flipped.
    – Writing Mechanics –
    – Wazoo’s piece talked about how Apple has a dangerous bug that invades our privacy
    – He used the words “IT” and “THIS” which is dangerous because the reader will not know what you are talking about.
    – Claims –
    – There are many different types of claims in the website you can refer back to
    – Models of Arguments –
    – (Classic Model) Aristotle- argument made appealed to his audience reason (logos), to their emotions (pathos), and to their sense of ethics, character, and authority (ethos) without ever calling anything a claim.
    – (Toulmin Model) Toulmin made claims supported with “grounds” (evidence)
    – Claims are assertions open to challenge
    – Not all claims need to provide (unstated claims often go by unnoticed, claims to which no readers would object, claims that would be readily accepted by your audience require no proof
    – Categorial- is X a Y?
    – Definition- What is Y?
    – Consequential- Does X cause Y
    – Resemblance- Is X like Y
    – Evaluation- Is X good or bad? Is X a good Y?
    – Proposal- Should we do X?

  7. thecommoncase says:

    Warm-up Riddle
    -how come mirrors don’t flip reflections vertically?
    -Has something to do with light
    -flips on the x-axis not the y-axis
    -if anything, it flips front to back as if taking what’s behind us and flipping it forward

    Writing Mechanics
    -always summarize!!
    -your readers did not read what you read so you have to explain and give context
    -“it” and “this” are substitutes for actual information

    Claims
    -Aristotle invented argument but never called them claims
    -logos, pathos, ethos
    -Toulman made claims using evidence
    -Value is often the basis of an argument
    -Carl Rogers connected Aristotle’s and Toulamans idea and stated that starting on common ground, then comparing differences during an argument, then maximize the benefit of every solution to solve problems (Rogerian Model)
    -not all claims require proof (example: “murder is bad”)
    -If you identify your audience, you can make a claim without evidence (example: claim that lower taxes are better in a middle-class town)
    -Categorical Claim: is X a Y?
    -Definitional Claim: What is a Y?
    -Consequential Claim: is X like Y?
    -Evaluation Claim: is X good or bad? Is X a good Y?
    -Proposal Claim: Should we do X?

  8. gooferious says:

    09/29/2020 Notes:
    – When summarizing try to avoid using the words “it” and “this” until you have clearly stated what you are talking about and why.
    – Aristotle would have his audience appeal to using their reason (logos), emotions (pathos) and their sense of ethics and character (ethos)
    – Toulmin took it a step further and said we must provide evidence
    – Toulmin made claims which were backed up by concrete evidence
    – Rogers took it upon himself to further it even more by examining arguments and tried to help both sides by helping come to a compromise and/or meet each other halfway
    – Not all claims need to be proved
    – Arguments for claims are necessary as they could make or break what you are trying to get across

  9. l8tersk8ter says:

    The Mirror paradox – mirrors do not flip horizontally

    Beware of “It” and “this” – using these words limit your explanation of essential information, leaves out summaries that would allow reader to know what was being written about

    Claim Types – they can overlap, it’s a matter of using the claim at the right time for it to be effective
    – Argument: different models created by different people
    – Aristotle: logos – use of logical reason to persuade, pathos – appeal to emotions, empathetic, ethos – morality, sense of right and wrong
    – Toulmin: winning, claims – premise, thesis and main points, open to dispute and discussion, require evidence (grounds), warrants are the values with the argument, claims try to draw a conclusion
    – Rogers: find common good, shared values, examine differences of opinion, offer resolution

    Claims are made orientated toward proper audience to appeal in best possible way
    Ex. (to parents) Ava wants Lasik, wants to convince parents and/or insurance to cover the procedure
    – Categorical: Lasik = safe & effective, Ava = good candidate
    – dads arguments, Definitional: radial keratotomy is discredited, Lasik is tech. advanced (or not in the same category)
    – Causal: causing a problem, solving or a problem, resulting in something (good or bad)
    – Resemblance: Lasik resembles height of technology, which was glasses, when they were kids, resemblance between now and then
    – Evaluation: lifetime savings of one investment
    – Proposal: problem (pathos), solution & justification (logos), “rightness” of solution (ethos)

  10. pardonmyfrench13 says:

    Class notes 9/29
    Mirror paradox
    • See opposite of what it is
    • Doesn’t flip anything
    • Only on x axis
    • Accepted that it flips because that’s what we are seeing
    Wazoo’s Purposeful summary:
    • Keep short and to the point
    • Add just enough background info
    • Keep out “it” and “this”, just define instead
    • Add specific details so people know what you’re talking about
    Claims:
    • Must be brought out at right time to be effective
    • Claims in arguments have different approaches to work
    Aristotle has 3 arguments
    • Pathos, logos, ethos
    • Logic, ethic, and emotions…arguments must appeal to all 3
    Toulmin
    • Created claims
    • Had to support w/ evidence
    Rodgers
    • Solve the shared problem
    Not all claims need to be proved
    Arguments need to be shaped to a certain argument
    Win arguments by finding a common ground is the best route
    Ava and her Lasik surgery; she needs to appeal to her certain audience to make an argument that persuades them
    • Categorical claims, evaluation claims, causal claims, and resemblance claims used
    (use worksheet if need help, hidden link)
    Preview argument material
    White paper due Thursday!!!!

    • davidbdale says:

      If you ever return to these Notes for reference, you’ll appreciate me suggesting this change:
      Arguments need to be shaped to a certain argument
      Arguments need to be shaped to a certain AUDIENCE
      3/3

  11. dayzur says:

    9/29/20

    -Mirrors flip front to back, if anything at all.
    -Obama pin seems to be on the left side of the body in the mirror image but actualy on the right side
    -It and This, very unclear pronouns, not clear what is being talked about in cases
    -Provide just enough background information for the reader to understand your point of view
    -With the removal, or change, of IF and THIS, writing became much more clear and concise
    -A factual argument can be persuasive and qualitative
    -Bringing out an argument or claim at the right time can really change everything
    -The correct order and placement makes a large difference
    -Types of arguments: Classical Model, Toulmin Model, Rogerian Model
    -Aristotle presented ethos, pathos, and logos
    -Logos: logical reasoning
    -Ethos: ethical reasoning
    -Pathos: sympathetic reasoning
    -A good argument in Aristotle style shows all three, ethos, pathos, and logos
    -Claims aren’t true, but are open to discussion, and can be followed to the end to a conclusion
    -Saying ideas out loud will not convince readers, need evidence
    -Sometimes we try to solve differences by finding shared solutions
    -Some things are facts and everyone accepts that, but others are fact for your audience, claims take audience into account
    -Arguments to prove common ground, not to prove someone is wrong here
    -If we are talking to an audience who already agrees with us, what is the point of persuasion? nothing
    -Categorical Claim: Is X a Y?
    -Definitional Claim: What is a Y?
    -Consequential Claim: Does X Cause Y?
    -Resemblance Claim: Is X like Y?
    -Evaluation Claim: Is X good or bad? Is X a good Y?
    -Proposal Claim: Should we do X?

  12. bluntwriting88 says:

    9/29/2020
    Notes:
    Purposeful summaries:
    -Give ENOUGH background information to guide the audience and provide ideas/images
    – Do not obfuscate Ex. This, it language
    -antecedent must be clear

    Claims
    Aristotle
    – Ethos Logos Pathos (Classical Rhetoric)
    Toulmin
    -Thesis
    -Claims (Warrants/Evidence/ ‘Since’)
    Rogers
    -Common grounds and shared problems
    -focus on compared solutions and limitations.

    Tailor argument to AUDIENCE
    Different ways to argue a point:

    Ex. of Categorical argument
    Lasik BELONGS TO effective
    lasik BELONGS TO safe for teens
    Ava BELONGS TO good candidates for lasik

    Definitional (IS it THIS?)
    Causal (Does it CAUSE these MALADIES/POSITIVES ?)
    Resemblence -VERY POWERFUL
    -illustrates via examples/images/feelings
    -allows COMPARISION

    the overall argument must be EVALUATED (The evaluation of the arguer)
    -by use of evaluation claims
    ex. Minimized risk of lasik
    – evaluation claims are quite COMPARATIVE
    proposal claims
    -problem -> solution -> justification

  13. sonnypetro29 says:

    Notes 9/29
    The mirror Paradox
    Specific details and how they are used in purposeful summaries
    Claims types, backed up by evidence and make clear how you are using these claims.
    Exercise worksheet, use of categorical claims
    Aristotle invented arguments.
    Categorical Claim: is X a Y?
    -Definitional Claim: What is a Y?
    -Consequential Claim: is X like Y?
    -Evaluation Claim: is X good or bad? Is X a good Y?
    -Proposal Claim: Should we do X?

  14. comicdub says:

    9/29/20 Notes:
    -Specific details are very important because if you just use “it” and “this” throughout your writing without explaining what “it” and “this” are talking about then the reader won’t have any clue what the writing is about
    -There are often no right or wrong declarations of what type a claim is
    -Three elements of persuasive argument are pathos, logos, and ethos
    -Good argument using Classical Model of argument uses all three elements
    -Define your audience in your writing
    -Categorial: is X a Y?
    -Definitional: What is a Y?
    -Consequential: Does X cause Y?
    -Resemblance: Is X like Y?
    -Evaluation: Is X good or bad? Is X a good Y?
    -Proposal: Should we do X?
    -Whitepaper assignment due Thursday Oct 1st

  15. corinnebuck1219 says:

    -Cindy crawford- used beautymark as her trademark (left side appears on right side of screen)
    Mirrors don’t flip right to left. It flips front to back
    -“We believe mirrors flip horizontally due to things like flipped writing on a T shirt. But mirrors actually are flipped front to back which can be demonstrated by moving both pointer fingers front and back not at the same time.”
    -Writing mechanics- wazoo wrote about how apple allows eavesdropping
    Use specific details to replace it and this!
    -basic claim types:
    definition= using definition as claim (convincing dad)
    analogy= claiming similarity of one thing to another
    categorical= naming several examples that belong to categories (parents pay for lasik)
    (there’s a few more)
    -aristotle – ethos, pathos, and logos
    -Toulmin- made claims and supported with grounds to create argument
    -rodgers- looked for common ground to solve shared problems
    -your thesis is a claim
    -claims do not require proof
    -claim chart
    -Thursday: prep model def essay/ categorical
    – white paper midnight wednesday

  16. wafflesrgud22 says:

    9/29/2020

    Wake up: The Mirror Paradox
    Cindy Crawford examples, flipped left to right? No, it flips front to back
    Barack Obama with flag pin in the left lapel
    Cindy Crawford with letters on her shirt
    We commonly believe that mirrors flip horizontally but if this were true then we would be upside down in our reflection.

    Writing Mechanics
    Wazoo post was confusing about apple facetiming and how their bugs were being used to spy, he did not provide a summary

    Basic Claim Types
    A good argument in Aristotle’s model has all three: ethics, character, and authority without ever calling anything a claim
    Maybe to resolve arguing we try to find solutions together to resolve the arguing
    Our paper is the calm voice in the room!
    Her Arguments are based on categorical claims
    Her arguments are based on causal claims
    Her arguments will usually follow a problem, solution, justification structure
    These arguments can be blended together throughout piece
    Ava Lasik Surgery: eye surgery
    (categorical, definitonal, consequential, resemblance, evaluation, proposal)
    Prep for Thursday (check agenda)

    • davidbdale says:

      We commonly believe that mirrors flip horizontally but if this were true then we would be upside down in our reflection.
      Huh?
      I hope these Notes are helpful to you, waffles. I confess they wouldn’t do me much good.
      2/3

  17. BabyGoat says:

    This and It: It seems to be about people buying iPhones knowing that there is a bug. And this seems to be a fill in word for the whole situation. When writing, you should make specific details easier to follow because readers may not.

    Claims: Placing the right claim at the right time can make the argument better.
    Aristotle – Ethos, Logos, Pathos
    Toulmin – Grounds, Warrants, Backing
    Rogers – Common ground & Shared Problems, Difference of opinions, Solutions & Limitations, Resolved differences.
    Find out your audience and how to talk to them.
    Categorical= Is X a Y?
    Definitional= What is a Y?
    Consequential= Does X cause Y?
    Resemblence= Is X like Y?
    Evaluation= Is X good or bad? Is X a good Y?
    Proposal= Should we do X?

    • davidbdale says:

      The rest of your Notes are mostly outline, BabyGoat, but these three observations, in which you explain to yourself the importance of the material, are enough to qualify you for full participation:
      —When writing, you should make specific details easier to follow because readers may not.
      —Claims: Placing the right claim at the right time can make the argument better.
      —Find out your audience and how to talk to them.
      They could be better phrased, but they do summarize important lessons. More of such work in future.
      3/3

  18. BigBarry2 says:

    9/29 Class notes
    Warm up: The Mirror Paradox
    How the eye sees things through the mirror and how your brain changes it. Your eye originally sees things upside down but your brain flips it so it looks normal.
    Writing Mechanics: on being specific, beware of using “IT” and “THIS”. Using those words makes it hard for the reader to understand what you are talking about. Replace these words with specific words related to the actual story to make it more understandable for the reader. I myself use the words It and This when it comes to describing things in my writings, and I know it would help a lot if I started replacing them with specific details. Claim types. Claims are assertions open to challenge. The only way to refute an argument that you believe doesn’t have enough evidence is to make a counter argument with more supported evidence than the other person. White paper is due thursday.

  19. sunshine2818 says:

    Class notes 9/29

    The mirror
    Why does it flip vertically
    – No it flips back and forth
    Class activity: describe the activity of the mirror
    What to do in a purposeful summary
    – Actually summarize
    – Don’t use “it’ or ‘this”
    claims argument
    – The ability to make an argument without making a claim
    – When making an argument make sure you are clear what you are asking for
    – Ava trying to convince in-order to get eye surgery
    Example – in order to convince mom for eye surgery, all arguments must be covered and be put into a category
    different types of arguments fit into different claims
    – categorical, definitional, consequential, evaluation, and proposal
    Prep work due for thursday

  20. rowanstudent says:

    notes 9/29
    Mirror paradox- they do not flip horizontal
    Explain yourself like the reader has no idea or has never heard of your topic
    Models of argument – Aristotle
    Aristotle created pathos ethos and logos- forms of argument.
    Using it and this can weaken your explanation leaving less room for important information that can be useful towards your argument and better understanding for the reader.
    Claim types cannot be one or the other in order to be a useful and strong point.
    Essay Wednesday by midnight

    • davidbdale says:

      Good note:
      Explain yourself like the reader has no idea or has never heard of your topic
      Using IT and THIS can weaken your explanation leaving less room for important information that can be useful towards your argument and better understanding for the reader.
      Bad Note: Claim types cannot be one or the other in order to be a useful and strong point.
      2/3

  21. gabythefujoshi18 says:

    9/29 Class Notes

    Riddle: The Mirror Paradox
    -see things of the opposite side of somebody
    -supposedly, it would be horizontal
    -our eyes see things upside and our brains make them see back upfront
    -So why do we see the mirror flip horizontally instead of vertically?
    Answer: It doesn’t flip at all, it’s a front-back

    Beware of ‘it’ and “this” without any clear antecedent
    -Example: Privacy about Apple
    -he didn’t make clear of the antecedent or what you are talking about

    Basic Claim Types:
    -Definition Claim
    -Analogy Claim
    -Categorical Claim
    -Important to use the appropriate claim to promote my argument

    Background: Models of Argument
    -Aristotle- makes appeals of reason, emotions, and ethics, character, and authority
    -Toulmin- introduced the term claims- premise and many points of argument are claims
    -arguments based on warrants(value of an argument)
    -backing(based on something more deeper than what we can process)
    -Carl Rogers- was about finding common ground and solving shared problems

    Ava wants to get lasik
    Ava’s mom has read about serious complications, Ava needs to convince her audience that lasik is safe and effective; also that she is a good candidate.
    Her arguments are based on categorical claims.
    – Lasik belongs to the category effective surgeries.
    – Lasik belongs to the category safe procedures for twenty-year-olds.
    – Ava belongs to the category good candidates for lasik.

    Ava dad’s remembers early controversies about radial keratotomy, but he needs to understand what exactly the procedure Ava wants
    Her arguments are based on definitional claims.
    – Radial keratotomy is a discredited experimental procedure using scalpels.
    – Lasik is advanced technologically-proven laser surgery.

    Both parents want to know what motivates Ava to want something so expensive in the first place.
    -she can make causal, resemblance, and evaluation claims

  22. shadowswife says:

    NOTES:

    Wake Up:
    Mirrors are believed to display a horizontally flipped image of something, but it’s actually flipped front to back.

    Writing Mechanics:
    – Specific details are very important because they’re meant to remind the reader of what the text is
    about and give a better understanding of the topic.
    – Avoid using “it” and “this” because it’ll leave the reader confused about what the text is referring to
    or talking about.

    Claims:
    – Types:
    * Definition
    * Categorical
    * Analogy
    * Quantitive, Numerical, or Comparative
    * Causual
    * Recommendation or Proposal
    * Evaluative
    * Factual
    * Ethical or Moral
    – Definition, categorical, and analogy claims would be most useful in our first argument.
    * Analogy claims are sometimes a good way to make a definition or describe a category.
    – Evaluative claims can be combined with factual claims
    – Quantitive, numerical, comparative, and casual claims should be used in the second essay.
    * Cause and effect argument.
    + Why do things happen?
    + What caused this to happen?
    + What results will certain situations have?
    – Recommendation or proposal claims should be used for the final essay.
    * Can suggest a change in anything.
    – Claims are assertions that are open to challenge.
    * Factual claims are less open to challenge.
    * Most claims need to be supported with evidence.
    * The tone when arguing needs to kept calm.

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