09 Class WED FEB 19

Wake up

Claims

  • Another look at the Claim Types list
    • Claims defined and modeled using the article “Is PTSD Contagious?” as its subject matter.
  • Link to the Lasik Surgery Claims Demonstration
    • A lecture on claims that includes a chart for applying several claims types to your own hypothesis.

Definition/Categorical Argument

  • Your Professor’s Model Definition Essay
    • Attempts to answer the question, “Does polio belong to the category of eradicable diseases?”
  • Model Definition/Categorical Essay
    • The editors of the New York Times defines a crucial constitutional term: protected class that deserves heightened scrutiny.

 

15 Responses to 09 Class WED FEB 19

  1. july0222 says:

    All words In our writing need to be crystal clear and stand on it’s own
    A mirror flips front to back, and it’s as if we’re looking at ourselves through the back
    An example of an analogy is PTSD is a contagious disease
    A proposal claim should not be using demanding language, instead maybe something that needs to be revisited and brought to everyone’s attention again because it’s not what we all thought
    Contagious can be used in many ways, you may be catching the flu from someone who has it, or going to England for a couple years, and now you have a little accent
    Toulmin made claims, and said we based them off of arguments and under it is backing, whatever that’s supossed to mean
    Different claims require different claims
    Rodgers says when people are arguing back and forth about something doesn’t mean you’re going to come up with a conclusion, but instead it might unveil that there are more things you agree on than you thought
    The only way to say someone’s evidence is incorrect, or unsupported, you must have your own, that is slightly better
    One main point can propose many different ideas, such as security on campus, that can mean installing more cameras, or making it extremely bright even through the night
    You need to always know who our audience is to determine how you’re going to argue your claim, if it’s your mom, you would speak differently to her than yo would your doctor

  2. nj908 says:

    PTSD is like an accent that if two people spend enough time together they will pick up each others accents and if they were to go to Ireland with in a few years you’d pick up a Irish accent if you are in a stressful or dangerous environment you will develop the symptoms as well as living with someone that has PTSD.
    Toulmin made claims and supported them with grounds based his arguments on warrants which in turn rests on backing
    Aristotle pathos logos ethos
    you should know the ins and outs and the main topic of your point to argue and make your claim
    Definition Essay

  3. chavanillo says:

    Terminology of claims and how can I apply it to my hypothesis:
    adalencense in he system like divorce your he youth of who will get the child and etc…
    kid convicted of a murder

    Unfair by giving teens the same punishment you give into a adult.

    wake up:

    looking at a mirror could change the direction horizontally.
    When we see Cindy Crawford in photograph she looks like the photograph. When you see yourself in the mirror she is facing the other direction.
    Answer: a mirror doesn’t flip left to right. It flips from and back.

    Categorical for a first 1000 paper.

    naming examples pf PTSD symptoms(sleepless, quick anger, hyperawareness.) Is not only a psychological disorder it also could be spread to others by close contact.

    PTSD is contagious disease fall in analogy claim.

    Evaluate claim examine material and draw judgment.

    Ethical: place judgment on a social situation.

    Comparative: maybe factual evaluating depending on the reliability go the measurements.

    Recommendation or proposal: convince the audience to adopt a curse of action are making a proposal claim. The word should, or must to demand inevitably appears in a proposal argument.

    Brannan was influence by her father. Living in a war zone because her father sense he has PTSD he is giving that behavior to his daughter. she have been living in a war zone.

    claim type:
    Aristotle, made appeals of logos. ethos, and pathos.
    Toulmin made claims( the thesis is the first claim, follow by Manny smaller claims). supported them by grounds (evidence) based on argument of warrants(values on which the argument is rested) which in turn rest on baking( which no textbook adequately explains and which perplexes students and professors alike).

    We want out children to be wanted

    We don’t have to prove everything:
     Unstated claims often go by unnoticed and require no proof.
     Claims to which no readers would be likely to object can safely be made without proof.
     Claims that would be readily accepted by your intended audience require no proof.

    Claims are assertions open t challenge:
    “All three argument models make claims, though only Toulmin uses the term. Your thesis—your premise, your central assumption—is a claim because, as the terms suggest, what you intend to prove is an assertion that is open to challenge.
    We’ve used the term in class so far to mean any assertion—even unstated assertions—that readers must accept (whether they recognize they’re doing so or not) for the paper to be persuasive.”

    Your Paper is the claim voice on the room:
    to ask what we really arguing about.
    Rebuttals that have no connection ton the casino they indebted to refute.

    Lets take and example:
    Amanda Smith wants to get rid of her glasses and undergo lasik surgery. It’s still elective surgery not covered by insurance.
     She’d like to talk her parents into covering a portion of the cost, say 100%. OR
     She’d like to convince the insurance company to cover the cost, say 100%
    Amanda has two audiences to convince. She will make claims to both audiences as she argues that
    she is the only person in the room who should not pay. She may not recognize what she’s doing until the end of the semester, but Amanda will be using claim types to identify points of disagreement for her two audiences.
    First, we’ll examine the types of claims to be proved when Amanda argues with her parents.

    Her parents or the insurance She has 2 choices and she going to say different things to both audience, to get what she wants.

    Amanda’s mom has read about serious complications, especially for young candidates, and anyway, how much better will her eyesight be, and is it worth the risk? Plus her friend’s friend knew someone who got an infection. Plus, don’t doctors prefer patients in their mid-twenties at least? Amanda needs to convince her audience that lasik is safe and effective; also that she is a good candidate.
    Her arguments are based on categorical claims.
     Lasik belongs to the category effective surgeries.
     Lasik belongs to the category safe procedures for twenty-year-olds.
     Amanda belongs to the category good candidates for lasik.

    -this is how she has to convince them that is safe because her parents are worry.

    definitely claim to parents:
    Her arguments are based on definitional claims.
     Radial keratotomy is a discredited experimental procedure using scalpels.
     Lasik is advanced technologically-proven laser surgery.

    Her arguments are based on causal claims.
     Glasses and contacts cause serious problems for divers.
     Lasik would solve a serious problem for Amanda.
     Easier access to underwater research would result in professional advantages.

    Her arguments are based on resemblance claims.
     Lasik today resembles eyeglasses and contacts lenses of yesterday.
     Amanda’s situation resembles her parents’ situations in their youth.
     The best solution for Amanda resembles the best solution for earlier generations.
     The costs and risks of lasik now resemble the costs and risks of earlier remedies.

    Her arguments are based on evaluation claims.
     Risks are minimal compared to proven results.
     The high initial investment is a bargain compared to a lifetime of escalating expenses.
     The psychological and career benefits are not balanced by any benefits of glasses.

    Her arguments will usually follow a problem/solution/justification structure.
     The first section convinces Amanda’s parents that a problem exists. (Appeal to Aristotle’s pathos)
     The second section proposes the solution to the problem. (Appeal to logos)
     The last section justifies the solution by demonstrating that the benefits of acting outweigh the costs; or:
    (Appeal to logos)
     The inherent “rightness” of the solution on moral or ethical grounds compels action. (Appeal to ethos)

    she could make appeal claims (logos, ethos , and pathos.)

    Categorical=Is X a Y?
    Claims
    Definitional=What is a Y?
    Claims
    Consequential= Dies X cause Y
    Claims

    Go back to this page for 1000 word papers.

  4. biggarz7 says:

    Mirrors are more confusing then you think
    Many think mirrors flip images left to right
    However they are wrong, it actually flips front to back. For example a mirror gives yourself the image of looking at yourself from the back, but you can see your face
    Analogy claims are stretching some truths and words, for example like the word contagious usually meaning a type of germ, but we can say that PTSD is contagious
    Aristotle made appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos
    Ethos is the ethical appeal
    Pathos is the emotional appeal
    Logos is the reason why
    Toulmin based claims around his opinions, but used the use of evidence to support his ideas
    Have to persuade different types of audiences with different types of claims
    Like if you want to persuade your parents or the insurance company you would use different methods of persuasion

  5. wazoo1234 says:

    overlap in ways we describe claims.
    Claims was made popular by tool man. He said we make claims and support therewith grounds.
    We base our claims on evidence and classify the in certain ways.
    claims are open to challenges and we do not need a solution Just evidence.
    can make arguments ethos pathos logos.

  6. hazelnutlatte123 says:

    – mirror paradox
    – mirror flips front to back
    – looking at yourself as if you are looking from behind
    – various claims in the smallest sentences we write
    -analogy: finds similarities
    – “ptsd is like a contagious disease”
    – models of argument
    – appeals to logos, pathos, ethos
    – “claims”= created by Toolman
    – people make claims and then have an explanation called backing
    – base claims on evidence
    – classified in different categories because each claim argues different grounds
    – claims are assertion open to challenge
    – only way to refute someones lack of evidence is to provide evidence of your own
    – look over examples of definition essay
    -reply how it is a definition Essay & you can add if you agree with the paper or not

  7. nyaj32 says:

    Hypothesis is a claim
    We must make constant categorical claims in our first 1000 word essay
    Category and analogy are similar
    Ethos (Authority) Pathos (Emotions) Logos (Reason)
    Claims are open to challenge- We can argue, but not always try to convince the there person that you are right and instead listen to each others points. We may agree more than we originally thought we did.
    Not all claims need to be proved

  8. rowanstudent2 says:

    Wake Up
    The Mirror Paradox
    – a mirror doesn’t flip left-to-right, it flips front-to-back

    Claims
    – there are various claims in the smallest sentences
    – categorical claim: collection of words that belong to a category
    – recommendation or proposal claim will be used in the 3000 word paper
    – category and analogy are similar

    Lasik Surgery Claims Demonstration
    Models of Argument
    – Classical Model (Aristotelian method), Toulmin Model (Stephen Toulmin), Rogerian Model (Carl Rogers)
    – Aristotle made appeals to his audience’s reason (logos), to their emotions (pathos), and to their sense of ethics, character, and authority
    – Toulmin made claims supported them with grounds, based his arguments on warrants, which in turn rest on backing
    – Rogers concentrated on finding areas of common gourd dead solving shared problems
    – after identifying where we agree, he examined differences of opinion or perhaps misunderstandings, compared recommended solutions and their limitations, the offered ways to resolve differences
    Claims are Assertions Open to Challenge
    – all three argument models make claims
    – your thesis is claim because what you intend to prove is an assertion that is open to challenge
    – not all claims need to be proved
    – unstated claims often go by unnoticed and require no proof
    – claims to which no readers would be likely to object can safely be made without proof
    – claims that would be readily accepted by your intended audience require no proof
    Your Paper is the Calm Voice in the Room
    – there are claims from very angle, rebuttals that have no connection to the claim they intend to refute, very little actual communication in evidence, and no real argument as we like to define argument
    Let’s Take an Example
    – Amanda Smith wants to get rid of her glasses and undergo lasik surgery. It’s still elective surgery not covered by insurance
    – she’d like to talk her parents into covering a portion of the cost, say 100%
    Definitional Claims to the Parents
    – radial keratotomy is a discredited experimental procedure using scalpels
    – lasik is advanced technologically-proven laser surgery
    Causal Claims to the Parents
    – glasses and contacts cause serious problems for divers
    – lasik would solve a serious problem for Amanda
    – easier access to underwater research would result in professional advantages
    Resemblance Claims to the Parents
    – lasik today resembles eyeglasses and contacts lenses of yesterday
    – Amanda’s situation resembles her parents’ situations in their youth
    – the best solution for Amanda resembles the best solution for earlier generations
    – the costs and risks of lasik now resemble the costs and risks of earlier remedies
    Evaluation Claims to the Parents
    – risks are minimal compared to proven results
    – the high initial investment is a bargain compared to a lifetime of escalating expenses
    – the psychological and career benefits are not balanced by any benefits of glasses
    Proposal Claims to the Parents
    – the first section convinces Amanda’s parents that a problem exists. (Appeal to Aristotle’s pathos)
    – the second section proposes the solution to the problem. (Appeal to logos)
    – the last section justifies the solution by demonstrating that the benefits of acting outweigh the costs; or:
    (Appeal to logos)
    – the inherent “rightness” of the solution on moral or ethical grounds compels action. (Appeal to ethos)

    Definition/Categorical Argument
    Political Paralysis
    – how is it a definition or categorical essay?
    – it contrasts the eradication of polio to the eradication of smallpox
    Defintion Essay-Protected Class (New York Times editorial)
    – it’s an argument
    – it has real-world relevance
    – it often requires defining several terms

  9. g903254 says:

    Definition essay must stand alone as an essay.

    Categorical Claim
    “Symptoms of PTSD” PTSD belongs to the category of ailments that can be spread

    Proposal Claim
    You might or might not propose behavioral reevaluation.

    Brannan’s PTSD is an entirely new case compared to her father’s because her trauma comes from her father

    Models of Argument

    Aristotle
    appeals to logos, pathos, and ethos

    Toulmin
    Made claims as a basis of his entire argument
    Used Grounds (evidence)
    Warrants (Value of argument)
    Backing (???)

    Rogers
    Looked for common ground
    Looked to solve shared problems
    Found ways to resolve differences through a common solution to solve differences
    the “calm voice” in the room

    Claims are assertions. They should always be challenged
    Different types of claims need different types of evidence.

    When it comes to parents and an insurance company the types of argument you need to use are vastly different. With parents you need to disprove any anecdotal evidence and use definitional, casual, resemblance, evaluative, and proposal claims.

    Claims
    Categorical= Is X a Y

    Definitional= What is a Y

    Consequential= Does X cause Y

    Resemblence= Is X like Y

    Evaluation= Is X good or bad? Is X a good Y?

    Proposal= should we do X

  10. mysterylimbo says:

    The mirror paradox is understanding that mirrors don’t flip right to left instead it flips from front to back as if you are looking through the objects back behind.
    Comparative claims are going to be needed for the next essay.
    There is a different type of claims which include claims, quantitive, definition, and others.
    Aristotle came up with logos, pathos, and ethos without ever calling them claims
    Toulmin made the foundation of claims and the ground works
    Rogers founded the ‘common ground’ and shared problems. Claims are assertions open to challenge. Meaning not all claims need to be proved.
    Facts and relevant information is the only thing that could dispute a claim.
    The audience is something that matters when stating a claim.
    A good definition article, talk about real-world issues.
    This essay is described as a categorical essay because it explains the processing of eliminating disease and show how we can get rid of polio comparatively to the eradication of smallpox.

  11. yourfavoriteanon says:

    Notes:
    – mirrors don’t flip left to right but front to back as if you were looking at your front through your back
    – our first 1000 word essay will be the categorical essay
    – the whole 3000 word essay should be a proposal claim in itself
    – residents of highly dangerous places are prone to ptsd
    – the classical model of argument is named after Aristotle (Classical model)
    – Toulmin came up with “claims” and “backing” (Toulmin model)
    – Carl Rogers promoted problem solving and coming to a common ground (Rogerian model)
    – Claims are assertions open to challenge that don’t always need to be proved
    – The only way to refute someone’s lack of evidence is to bring your own evidence
    – what are we actually disagreeing about or what are we actually discussing
    – think about who you are writing to/ whois your audience

  12. pomegranate4800 says:

    Notes:
    – Mirrors are confusing.
    – They make it look like you’re looking opposite of where you’re actually looking.
    – Aristotle made the logos, ethos, and pathos reason.
    – Claims was made popular by Toolman.
    – Rogers proposed a common ground. Where there isn’t much arguing but it is when you test each others ideas to prove the over all point.
    – Not all claims need to be proved.
    – The claims that you make should help you with your 1000 essay.
    – Smallpox was eradicated. Polio has not been.

  13. daphneblake25 says:

    -language used in an argument has to be clear to the reader
    -vague language will ultimately confuse readers and not allow them to know the topic until later on in your essay
    -categorical claims: focus of first paper
    -an analogy claim would be; ptsd is contagious because it’s saying ‘it’s like a contagious disease.”
    -comparative claim: “I was given 10 years for this crime, and it seemed fair to me until I discovered people who committed the same crime as me served only one year or no jail time.”
    -Aristotle: creator of argument
    -created pathos(emotion)
    -logos(logic)
    -ethos(ethics, authority, right and wrong)
    -Toulman made claims such as evidence to support his arguments
    -rogers believed arguing is testing ideas with another smart person and hopefully coming to a solution that incorporates both ideas
    -claims are assertions- they don’t always have to be proven
    -may not require additional evidence
    -only way to refute an argument that you believe doesn’t have enough evidence is to make a counter argument with more supported evidence than the other person
    -rogerian method; what are we actually arguing about
    -making categorical claims for her parents to pay for her lasik surgery
    -definitional claim for her dad to let him know it’ safe
    -causal claims about glasses and contacts and lasik surgery
    -evaluation claims about the good effects of the procedure
    -ciam chart to keep track of 1000 word essays

  14. nousernamefound1 says:

    Mirror Paradox-A mirror doesn’t flip left-to-right, it actually flips front-to-back.

    Claims : More or less claims or even numbers comparing are associated with quantitative, numerical, comparative claim. Recommendation or proposal claims are what we will be focusing on during our essay. Brannan really didn’t catch PTSD from Caleb’s. She just got used to her dad becoming more violent and not being reliable. I wouldn’t say she has PTSD, but she can show symptoms of PTSD from her fathers behavior.

    Models of Argument- The Classical Model of argument is also named the Aristotelian model.
    Toulmin Model was the second model. Rogerin Model was created by Carl Rogers. Rogers said when people are arguing back and forth you want to be the peacemaker in the situation. This model is the third type of model. Often unstated claims often go by unnoticed and require no proof. Claims to which no readers would be likely to object can safely be made without proof. Also, claims that would be readily accepted by your intended audience require no proof. Its safe to say that all claims do not require proof. When you want to convince parents or somebody thats not comfortable with the situation you might want to try using categorical claims.

    Categorical- Is X a Y?

    Definitional- What is a Y?

    Consequential- Is X like Y?

    Evaluation- Is X good or bad?
    Is X a good Y?

    Proposal- Should we do X?

  15. jets1313 says:

    notes:
    – analogy claims find similarities
    – evaluative claims examine the material and make your own judgments
    – comparative claim comparing one scenario to another
    – you want look back at your work that your embarrassed. Want to be writing better

    claim types
    – classical model of argument is named after Aristotle
    – Aristotle is the inventor of argument
    – never called anything a claim
    – toolman made the claim important
    – said we Make claims
    – Rodgers thinks we argue to test our ideas and find common ground
    – recognize the values that we do share
    – some claims require evidence some do not
    – use different arguments depending on audience

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