- Eschner, Kat. “The Evolution of Petface.” Smithsonian.com, Smithsonian Institution, 31 Jan. 2018, http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/evolution-petface-180967987/.
I used this source to explain what ‘pet face’ is and how it came to be what it is today. Pet faces are when breeders intentionally breed for puppy-like features such as big heads, bulging eyes, smooshed faces, and so on. Ultimately as a result, this is now the desired traits that customers want, and the American Kennel Club now require. This is important to my research because it shows the negligence of the disorders and conditions dogs will endure as a result of these unhealthy traits that we have decided for the dog and future generations.
2. Maldarelli, Claire. “Although Purebred Dogs Can Be Best in Show, Are They Worst in Health?” Scientific American, Scientific American, 21 Feb. 2014, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/although-purebred-dogs-can-be-best-in-show-are-they-worst-in-health/.
In this article, we learn about the idea of outbreeding and how it can save future generations of dogs that have detrimental traits. Outbreeding is described as breeding out of the dogs distinct breed. This would then add more genes to their pool since purebred dogs are commonly inbred. Inbreeding can lead to many disorders and deformities. Breeders ignore these facts, and continue to inbred (the mating of direct family such as father and daughter or mom and son) since their desired traits are almost promised through each litter.
3. Welton, Michele. “Boston Terrier Health Problems: Feeding.” Boston Terrier Health Problems | Feeding, http://www.yourpurebredpuppy.com/health/bostonterriers.html.
I used this source to discuss how unhealthy breeds like the Boston Terrier are, and was able to demonstrate my points through statistics. This source helped me paint a picture of the points I was trying to explain. From this article, it’s important we learned how horrible their breeding traits have become, to the point where this breed cannot give birth on their own in many cases. We also learn the disorders they commonly will have, and how low the survival rates are of newborn pups. I find this source to be one of my most important sources since it truly gets its point across in a very factual way that helped me understand and to be able to form my own thoughts and opinions on my topic.
4. David Sargan Senior Lecturer in Molecular Pathology at the Department of Veterinary Medicine. “How to Save Inbred, Short-Faced Dogs Such as Pugs and Bulldogs from Poor Health.” The Conversation, 20 July 2020, theconversation.com/how-to-save-inbred-short-faced-dogs-such-as-pugs-and-bulldogs-from-poor-health-63341.
From this source, I was able to take away the major claim that we have set the Pug and Bulldogs are breeding for failure, due to breeding practices such as inbreeding. This article demonstrates the effects of these so called “desired traits” and how it affects their ability to mate. The bulldog and pug commonly undergo artificial insemination due to how ignorant breeders were when it comes to the torso, specifically the dogs hips and stance, and how these breeds cannot sustain the wait of another dog for breeding. I learned from this article how detrimental artificial insemination can be to breeds and actually lead to the breeds demise since they cannot produce pups through natural mating.
5. Brulliard, Karin. “French Bulldogs’ Cuteness Comes at a Steep Cost.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 1 Apr. 2019, http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/animalia/wp/2018/05/04/french-bulldogs-cuteness-comes-at-a-steep-cost/.
After reading this, we learn how popular the French Bulldog breed is, and how breeders took this and ran with it. We can see lots of statistics that were very useful. For example, we learned how the frenchies life median was 1.3 years, compared to other breeds averages at 4.5 years old. We also learned that out of 300 vet clinics sampled, 2228 Frenchies were found to have records, and 72% of this breed had disorders. While some of these disorders can be common like ear infections and diarrhea, while the more extreme cases were skin infections in the wrinkles, corneal ulcers, and many types of respiratory disorders. This study significantly helped my paper and displayed the effects of the negligent breeders and how they increase the chances of disorders.
6. Brownell, Matt. “10 Dogs With the Priciest Vet Bills.” TheStreet, 10 July 2011, www.thestreet.com/personal-finance/credit-cards/10-dogs-priciest-vet-bills-html.
From this source, I obtained a list of 10 dogs with the most expensive vet bills. Out of the 4 breeds I am pinpointing throughout my report, 2 breeds have landed themselves on the chart of most expensive vet bills. This relates to my report since it shows how these puppy-like features are not healthy for the dog, and actually cause many disorders and conditions. Most of these illnesses could have been prevented if the dog’s health was taken more into consideration, instead of what people want the dog to look like. I use these findings to show how some of the most popular dogs, which are also some of the most expensive dogs to even purchase, will ultimately suffer from many vet visits, causing stress to the animal and owner.
7. Brulliard, Karin. “Why Breeding Bulldogs Is Borderline Inhumane – The Boston Globe.” BostonGlobe.com, The Boston Globe, 5 Aug. 2016, www.bostonglobe.com/lifestyle/2016/08/05/why-breeding-bulldogs-borderline-inhumane/oXkhn20QASB8dS4bu5pA1N/story.html.
After reading this article, we learn how the Boston Globe thinks continuing breeding how breeders currently are is inhumane. In this, they explain the birth defects such as having a flat chest, skeletal disorders that can result in problems like hip dysplasia, how unnecessarily wrinkly their faces are which can result in doggy acne and skin irritations, eye problems due to how exposed the eye is, along with an underbite with lots of drooling that can often mean lots of dental trouble, along with the chance of choking on objects.We also learn as well as undergoing artificial insemination, these pups also cannot give birth naturally and will most likely have to have a C- section. We then again see the importance of outbreeding and how breeders tend to ignore the facts.
8. “Compulsory DNA Health Screening of Breeding Dogs.” 38 Degrees, you.38degrees.org.uk/petitions/compulsory-dna-health-screening-of-breeding-dogs.
This source helped me understand what compulsory DNA health screening is, and why it should be integrated in every breeding situation. Genetic testing should be done to prevent future generations from passing on these detrimental genes. This then would prevent “backyard” and improper breeding, but the AKC has yet to address it. Only a few breeds are required for this testing actually, instead of all breeds. This then solidified my case that the Kennel Clubs are not concerned with the animals welfare.
9. Handwerk, Brian. “Bulldogs Are Dangerously Unhealthy, But There May Not Be Enough Diversity in Their Genes to Save Them.” Smithsonian.com, Smithsonian Institution, 29 July 2016, www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/bulldogs-are-dangerously-unhealthy-there-may-not-be-enough-diversity-their-genes-save-them-180959963/.
In this source, I again stress the importance of outbreeding which requires a dog to mate with a dog from a different breed. This would increase the genepool and genetic diversity between the animals. In cases like the Bulldog and Pug, we can actually see little to no genetic diversity between a litters mother and father. Due to inbreeding, the dogs are all almost related now, since their genes barely differ from each other. This could lead to the dog’s demise since a big gene pool is required to keep a species from extinction.
10. Harrison, Jemima. Pedigree Dogs Exposed – The Blog, 1 Jan. 1970, pedigreedogsexposed.blogspot.com/.
During this source, I learned how pedigrees work, and how companies like The American Kennel Club require their breed representatives to be from a family of previous award winners. A dogs pedigree is the recorded history and family tree of a dog, proving them to be purebred. From this source, outbreeding was again discussed and explained. Breeders think when using outbreeding it will then make the breed contaminated, and making them prone to new disorders and diseases. This documentary challenged both Kennel Clubs in their regard for animal welfare and how they have been ignoring the facts many scientists have proven. This then left the Kennel Clubs no choice but to revisit and change their standards, but not enough to save these breeds.
11. Foden, Simon. “Dog Traits That Are Detrimental.” Pets, 21 Nov. 2017, pets.thenest.com/dog-traits-detrimental-6226.html.
This source was useful since it explained many genetic disorders and diseases that could have been prevented. From the head shape to the pelvis, this source goes through all these negative ‘desired’ traits, and how it affected generations, and the generations to come. This source was very useful to explain each disorder, and how they came about. This source also covered behavioral traits as well that I would like to add, but not too sure if these help my case.
12. “The Pros and Cons of Artificial Insemination.” DogsLife, 9 Sept. 2015, http://www.dogslife.com.au/dog-news/dog-health/pros-and-cons-of-artificial-insemination.
Background: First, artificial insemination can be used to store and ship stud semen. This is useful if breeders want to not inbreed, but still want their desired traits. Another positive of artificial insemination is it helps prevent STD’s shared when breeding, and how it can help the stress on both sides between the bitch and stud. On the other hand, or other paw, artificial insemination can lead to the breed’s extinction. Without being able to reproduce and mate naturally, it is making these breeds rely on artificial breeding which is not in any way natural.
How I Used It: This source was very helpful when explaining the pros and cons of artificial insemination that I used for my research paper, and my rebuttal as well.
13. Staff, AKC. “The Most Popular Dog Breeds of 2019.” American Kennel Club, American Kennel Club, 1 May 2020, http://www.akc.org/expert-advice/dog-breeds/2020-popular-breeds-2019/.
Background: From this source I learned that French Bulldog is ranked the 4th most popular dog in 2019, the Bulldog number 5th, Boston Terrier is the 21st, and the Pug 31st out of 193 recorded purebred breeds. This relates to my point that these breeds are some of the most popular breeds, some of the most expensive breeds to purchase, yet some of the most expensive breeds to maintain when looking at Vet records.
How I Used It: I used this source to express how these breeds I’ve listed throughout my research paper, are some of the most expensive breeds, and some of the most popular as well.
14. Staff, AKC. “Hip Dysplasia In Dogs: Prevention, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment.” American Kennel Club, American Kennel Club, 7 Feb. 2020, http://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/hip-dysplasia-in-dogs/.
Background: The American Kennel Club posted to their website the common disease in breeds with bad stance and a small pelvis, hip dysplasia. Hip dysplasia is when the hip socket doesn’t fully stay in the ball portion of the thigh bone. This disease is very painful and stressful on the dog, as well as expensive for the owners when it’s time to pay for treatments.
How I Used It: From this, I used this article to relate it to my main point of my research, since hip dysplasia can be caused from improper breeding, and how it can be prevented when different traits with the torso and legs are implemented. Not just the breeds I’ve researched, but many breeds unfortunately are prone to hip dysplasia.