- Maxmen, Amy. “Self-Driving Car Dilemmas Reveal That Moral Choices Are Not Universal.” Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, 24 Oct. 2018, http://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-07135-0.
Background: This article dives into the moral ethics of self driving cars. On nature.com they posted the largest ever survey done on machine ethics. They laid out a bunch of different types of scenarios that could happen and allowed people to take a survey on what people would choose. Each different scenario had an inevitable death in it and they let the people choose what happened.
How I used it: I used this article to show that there are many different scenarios that could happen with autonomous cars. I used it to show that no matter how the programmers for the car can not come up with a certain set of rules that apply to every single driver. The results from the survey helped me build a strong piece of work and allowed me to understand the information better.
- Andy Lau, MBA. “The Ethics of Self-Driving Cars.” Medium, Towards Data Science, 13 Aug. 2020, towardsdatascience.com/the-ethics-of-self-driving-cars-efaaaaf9e320.
Background: This article talks about the ethics of self driving cars and what the expectations for self driving cars are. It talks about how autonomous cars will be helpful and very efficient for our world. They are said to be very safe from taking you from point A to point B. The major companies making these cars believe they are ethical and that these cars will be safe for the environment and not harm any bystanders. They talk about the different algorithms each company uses and how they will be used to make the safest car for the consumer.
How I used it: I use this article to show that the manufacturers believe they can come up with the safest way to put algorithms into their cars so they are as safe as possible. I used this article to try and counter what they were saying and how it would be hard to come up with the perfect algorithm that would satisfy each consumer.
- Hawkins, Andrew J. “Inside Waymo’s Strategy to Grow the Best Brains for Self-Driving Cars.” The Verge, The Verge, 9 May 2018, http://www.theverge.com/2018/5/9/17307156/google-waymo-driverless-cars-deep-learning-neural-net-interview.
Background: In this article it goes into google’s side company Waymo and how they started up. Waymo has a self driving minivan, Waymo is the first company to be completely self driving and driving on public roads. They tried to make their cars drive somewhat humanly and react in some ways like humans. They have millions of miles of experience and they believe they have what it takes to have the safest car possible.
How I used it: I used this article to explain the different ways companies are evolving and what different methods they are using to make their car as safe as possible. I talked about how they are using their technology to try and mimic human actions while driving and how that could make the car safer.
- Monticello, M. (n.d.). Will Self-Driving Cars Make Our Roads Safer? Retrieved October 26, 2020, from https://www.consumerreports.org/self-driving-cars/will-self-driving-cars-make-our-roads-safer/
Background: In the article “ Will Self Driving Cars Make Our Roads Safer” it talks about how 90% of car accidents are caused by human error and if humans aren’t driving it will make the roads safer. It talks about different safety features in cars right now that have improved and made the roads a lot safer. It also talked about a google self-driving car that collided with a bus because the car was not programmed properly and did not take into account that there are human drivers and they don’t always drive the same way and it caused an accident. Google is fully onboard with cars becoming fully autonomous, they believe it will make the roads very safe.
How I used it: I used this article to explain how in a perfect world everyone would wish that there would be no car accidents and maybe self driving cars could be the answer to that, but we don’t know if they will yet we can only look at statistics and what ifs. We will not know what the real answer is until the car is fully effective in our everyday lives.
- Reference : Johnson, C. (2018, October 24). Self-driving cars will have to decide who should live and who should die. Here’s who humans would kill. Retrieved October 26, 2020, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/science/2018/10/24/self-driving-cars-will-have-decide-who-should-live-who-should-die-heres-who-humans-would-kill/
Background: In this article it gives you a scenario to start off and it makes you choose between hitting a homeless man and a criminal or two cats in the other lane. It really makes you think and you are the driver and only you can make that decision, but what if it is a self-driving car driving what will your car do in that situation.
How I used it: I used this article to help further my argument that people want to know what their car will do in these types of situations. Will the car save the people and hit the cats or will it hit the people and save the cats. I looked into this article and more times than not people choose to save the human over the animals. It didn’t matter if they were homeless or a criminal, people chose to save the humans. I wanted to give the reader different difficult scenarios that go through the mind of the people making the car and show how challenging making these cars can really be
- Kelkar, K. (2016, May 28). How will driverless cars make life-or-death decisions? Retrieved October 12, 2020, from https://www.pbs.org/newshour/nation/how-will-driverless-cars-make-life-or-death-decisions
Background: In the near future there will be driverless cars and moral codes will already be decided before the cars hit the roads. It talks about how humans make many decisions each time they are driving but with the self driving cars they will be pre programmed to make the decisions for you. These cars have to take into account every possible scenario to keep the driver safe.
How I used it: I used this article to explain how self driving cars will have to make moral decisions every single second and if they don’t make the right choice everything could go terribly wrong.
- May, and Katie Burke. “How Do Self-Driving Cars Make Decisions?: NVIDIA Blog.” The Official NVIDIA Blog, 7 May 2019, blogs.nvidia.com/blog/2019/05/07/self-driving-cars-make-decisions/.
Background: This article explains in depth on how autonomous cars make decisions. It gives you a in depth analysis on what types of technology is used for these cars to make decisions. The use many types of sensors and cameras to make different decisions
How I used it: I used this article to show all of the technology used inside of the self driving cars. I also used this to show that with all of this technology there could be glitches and these glitches could cause accidents and cause harm to the occupants.
- DeBord, Matthew. “Elon Musk Promises an Autopilot ‘Quantum Leap’ in the next Few Weeks. Here’s How Tesla’s One-of-a-Kind Bet on Self-Driving Tech Works.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 18 Aug. 2020, http://www.businessinsider.com/tesla-self-driving-technology-compared-to-everyone-see-how-it-works-2020-7.
Background: Elon Musk as we all know is big on autonomous vehicles, he has his own company Tesla. In this article it talks about how Musk plans to make massive strides in the autonomous vehicle industry. He wants his car to be fully autonomous in the very near future and he stats in this article that it will happen.
How I used it: I used this article to show how different competitors are making big steps in their own way to try and have their car fully autonomous first. Musk is the name we hear about most so I wanted to use him as a main tool for my work. He has the most vehicles on the road and is a very well known brand that can help relate to the audience who is reading this piece.
- Schmelzer, Ron. “What Happens When Self-Driving Cars Kill People?” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 26 Sept. 2019, http://www.forbes.com/sites/cognitiveworld/2019/09/26/what-happens-with-self-driving-cars-kill-people/.
Background: Many people ask the question whose fault is it if a self driving car kills someone who is at fault? With self driving cars becoming more frequent it is a big topic on who is at fault if the car is in self driving mode and kills someone and the person who was in the car could not do anything to stop it the vehicle should be at fault. In this article it talks about a few crashes that caused a person to die with self driving cars. It talks about the few major companies and their accidents that caused fatalities and who was responsible and what changes the company made after the fact.
How I used it: I used this article to show the real danger behind self driving cars and to bring up the issues of who is really at fault in these accidents. I use this to show different scenarios that could happen and if pedestrians could be at fault or if the manufacturer is responsible because it is their technology that killed the person not the human in the car because they had no control.
- Ryan Whitwam on September 8, 2014 at 3:45 pm Comment. “How Google’s Self-Driving Cars Detect and Avoid Obstacles.” ExtremeTech, 8 Sept. 2014, http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/189486-how-googles-self-driving-cars-detect-and-avoid-obstacles.
Background: Google is up there with tesla in their attempt to make fully autonomous cars. This article talks about how the cars can detect objects on the road and how it can detect when the car needs to move out of the way. The use of sonar radars and cameras are the main ways the car can detect when there is an object in the road and make a decision on what to do. Also a laser is used to help with object detection.
How I used it: I used this article to show what companies are doing in order to make sure their cars can become fully autonomous. I wanted to show that google is not as close as tesla to releasing their fully autonomous car because they want to make it as safe as possible before releasing it to the public. They don’t want to release it too early and have a lot of problems with causing a huge safety problem.