Bibliography – clementine

1.) M. Frost, J., CM. Klier, P., AK. Thapar, A., Brier, N., PA. Geller, C., CM. Klier, P., . . . H. Soderberg, C. (1996, January 01). The course of mental health after miscarriage and induced abortion: A longitudinal, five-year follow-up study. Retrieved November 17, 2020, from

Background: This article shows the research done on phycological implications on woman who have had an abortion. They also compare the phycological activity between a woman who has had a miscarriage to woman who have had an induced abortion. BMC Medicine hypothesized that woman who have had an abortion have more mental disturbance than women who experience a miscarriage. They proved their hypothesis to be right by comparing the mental health outcomes of both woman over the course of 5 years after their miscarriage/abortion. Woman who had induced abortion felt two times more anxiety than woman who had a miscarriage. Their quality of life was also just as diminished as if someone who had a miscarriage.

How I Used It: I used this information to provide statistics to the readers to support my idea that woman go through a lot of mental stress and trauma more than they think. The statistics also helped me back up the statements I made about how anxiety is more common in woman who have an abortion.

2.) Barnard, C. A. (1991). Post Abortion Stress. Retrieved November 17, 2020, from

Background: This article describes the PTSD syndrome specified to abortion. This syndrome called Post Abortion Syndrome was never originally recognized within the medical community but since it has been widely discussed, it is being accepted now. The article lays out a study that was done on 80 women who had abortions that experienced PTSD symptoms, 3-5 years following their abortion. Shockingly, almost fifty percent of the woman re-experience the traumatic event in flashbacks. Surprisingly, forty percent of the women experienced difficulty falling asleep and hypervigilance after the abortion and the study says they never experienced these symptoms before the abortion. This study in this article shows that a great percentage of women who have abortions experience life shifting symptoms after an abortion. 

How I Used It: I used this article to simply define what Post Abortion Syndrome is and how it compares to the normal PTSD. I also used this reference to show the different symptoms of this disorder and how it is just as severe as PTSD.

3.) McClelland, M. (2013, January 17). Is PTSD Contagious? Retrieved November 17, 2020, from

Background: This article explains to the readers that PTSD can be contagious. They used the real life story of Caleb Vines to display the extent of the problem. Caleb Vines is a veteran who was sent to Iraq to serve in the war and happened to come back with PTSD. His wife Brannan and their daughter, both experienced symptoms of their loved ones disorder even though they never been to war. She ended up having secondary traumatic stress which proved that trauma is a contagious disease. This article shows that having secondary trauma in your family can change our lives.

How I Used It: I used this source to show my readers that PTSD as well as PAS can diminish ones quality of life, including people you surround yourself with. Using a real life example catches the readers attention and show what “contagious PAS” would look like in our day to day lives.

4.) Garthus-Niegel, Susan et al. “Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms Following Childbirth: Associations with Prenatal Attachment in Subsequent Pregnancies.” Archives of women’s mental health 23.4 (2020): 547–555. Web.

Background: This article spells out how their is a pre-natal attachment between the mother and the fetus. There are emotional responses in pregnancy to a fetus attached to the mother. The author also explains that having pre-natal attachment influences material mental health.

How I Uses It: I used this source to explain to the readers that pregnant woman having an inevitable attachment to their fetus will cause more guilt trauma if they were to have an abortion. I am communicating to my readers that pregnant woman knowing that they have a phycological connection will make them more reluctant to having an abortion.

5.)  Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology (Online). London: Carfax Pub., Taylor & Francis Group, 1983. Print.

Background: This article talks about how pregnant woman have a Mother Fetus Relationship that grows the longer they are pregnant. Like normal relationships, the more you put into the relationship, the more you are likely to grow and become more attached to it. The author lays out an example about how woman that treat their bodies well and eat healthy is subconsciously demonstrating care and commitment for the fetus without her ever having the intentions to care and commit for it. 

How I Used It: I used this article to show my readers that the more a pregnant woman takes care of their body and plans on having an abortion, is just feeding into their connection to their fetus even more. Treating your body right means that you are treating the fetus right which in result, creates a stronger phycological connection to the fetus. This article gives statistics on how many woman feel like they have had a connection to the baby and how many have not.

6.) “Dimensions of Decision Difficulty in Women’s Decision-Making About Abortion: A Mixed Methods Longitudinal Study.” PloS one 14.2 (2019): e0212611–e0212611. Web.

Background: This article explains that having a difficult decision making situation on hand, abortion in this situation, affects your mental health. A study is done in this article that quantified different emotions in woman after having a third trimester abortion. They also measured the most common reasons why woman were struggling to decide to have an abortion.

How I Used It: I used this article to show that pregnant woman who are more reluctant to have an abortion, end up having the most severe cases of guilt trauma. Showing reluctance means that you might be recognizing that their fetus show signs of life. This will lead them to think they are taking a life away.

7.) Schwarz, Stephen D, Stephen D Schwarz, and Kiki Latimerm. Understanding Abortion: From Mixed Feelings to Rational Thought. Lanham, MD: The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, 2012. Print.

Background: This book displays all of the moral views on having a third-trimester abortion. The author goes through the rational thoughts of a mother carrying a fetus to woman that completely do not care for the fetus. He also goes in depth of the reality of the child in the womb and how it affects the mother mentally in the long run, after having an abortion.

How I Used It: I used this article to lay out statistics to my readers to prove that the mother fetus relationship affects a pregnant mother’s mental health if they decide to abort. I also use this article to show the readers that the fetus is learning even inside the womb before they are born.

8.) Biggs, Rowland. “Does Abortion Increase Women’s Risk for Post-Traumatic Stress? Findings from a Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study.” BMJ open 6.2 (2016): e009698–e009698. Web.

Background: This article explains the likeliness of obtaining PTSD when having an abortion. In the text, there is a study that tested the hypothesis that women who receive abortions are more likely to experience PTSD than women who are denied abortion. The study lasted for four years which included nine naves of interview data from the Turnaway Study. The results of the study concluded that ten percent of woman who experience an abortion are at a very HIGH risk of PTSD. Many others are at risk that have mild cases of PTSD but ten percent of them are severe. The article explained the statistics of the the study and how effective the study really was.

How I Used It: I used this article to prove that it is very likely that a woman who has an abortion in the third trimester will contract PTSD aka PAS. Whether it is mild or not, a great portion of woman struggle in their day to day lives and I prove that by laying down the statistics of a study this author conducted.

9.) Johnson, E. A. (2015, January 20). The Reality of Late-Term Abortion Procedures. Charlotte Lozier Institute.

Background: This article describes all of the different procedures that can be done for third trimester abortion. The author talks about intact dilation, extraction, surgical dilation, and evacuation. She also lays out statistics that show the readers how often these brutal procedures are done. Planned parent hood is shot down by the author by displaying facts and very informative information on how procedures are done.

How I Used It: I used this article to explain all of the different types of third trimester procedures that are used. Most of the procedures are very brutal and gruesome which I want to describe to my readers. Describing the procedures would paint a picture in my readers head that they would definitely not want to experience or picture again.

10.) Erikson, R. C. (1991). Post Abortion Stress. Retrieved November 17, 2020, from

Background: The author of this article, Robert C. Erikson, states in this article that going under abortion constitutes the action of harm. He believes that the decision to abort already implies that the intention is to do harm. He also believes that this intention will always be a conflict with the mother’s per-existing tendency to be attached with their un-born child. The article states that woman have a phycological and physical bond between the baby before it is even born. Since they mother and child have a bond, it creates stress on the mother if she is thinking of aborting her child.

How I Used It: I used this article to show that there is a constant phycological battle in a mother who is reluctant to have an abortion. There is an inevitable physical connection between the mother and the fetus that a reluctant mother that needs an abortion goes through. I wanted to inform my readers that being reluctant about having an abortion is just not a feeling, it is a feeling that comes with tolls if you go through with an abortion, in this case PAS.

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