“The amount of progress in Caleb’s six years of therapy has been frustrating for everyone. But ultimately, says Alain Brunet, vice president of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies and director of the Traumatic Stress Laboratory at McGill University in Canada, “we have reason to be reasonably optimistic. Psychotherapy does work for typical PTSD.”
These couple sentences are making an evaluative claim. “The amount of progress in Caleb’s six years of therapy has been frustrating for everyone.” Is involving judgement of the characteristics of a situation. The judgment of his progress and how it has effected others, and the situation being therapy. The rest of the quotation is where the evaluations are arguable and can be supported by expertise and authority, which in this scene would be Alain Brunet, the Vice President of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies and Director of the Traumatic Stress Laboratory.
The very last sentence, “Psychotherapy does work for typical PTSD,”is a casual claim because it has assertions of cause and effect.
“The VA tends to favor cognitive-behavioral therapy and exposure therapy—whereby traumatic events are hashed out and rehashed until they become, theoretically, less consuming.”
The first sentence of this next section is making a definition claim, giving a brief definition and explanation of cognitive- behavioral therapy and exposure therapy.
“Some state VA offices also offer group therapy. For severe cases, the agency offers inpatient programs, one of which Caleb resided in for three months in 2010. The VA also endorses eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy(EMDR), which is based on the theory that memories of traumatic events are, in effect, improperly stored, and tries to refile them by discussing those memories while providing visual or auditory stimulus.”
This area is making a definition claim, stating what EMDR therapy is.
“There’s a fairly strong consensus around CBT and EMDR,” Brunet says. While veterans are waiting for those to work, they’re often prescribed complicated antidepressant-based pharmacological cocktails.”
I believe these statements to be an ethical claim, it is showing fault in some forms of treatment which is leading veterans to be prescribed complicating antidepressant based cocktails possibly worsening their situation.