Research – Aquarela

Emotional Neglect: Neurological Damage

Childhood is a hell.

Childhood is a hell where we suffer more than ever, because children don’t know that they are suffering. And hell is not where we suffer, hell is where nobody knows that we are suffering. Although emotional abuse awareness has lately increased in society, most children are still being abused by older people, especially by their parents. Many families have always been negligent. Despite everything, they have survived generations and generations and continue to live in modern times. 

Neglect or the act of neglect presupposes that the child is being deprived of its basic conditions. We talk about something as simple as food, school or health, but sometimes the affection and attention that “being so simple’’, for certain families, can become a difficult responsibility. And this responsibility does not start after birth, but as soon as the pregnancy begins. Children are born with their history of nine months.

Neglect and abuse result from a complex combination of individual, family and social factors. Being a single mother or father, being poor, having problems with drug or alcohol abuse and / or having a mental problem (such as personality disorders or low self-esteem) can make a parent more likely to practice neglect or abuse against the child . In addition, adults who have suffered physical or sexual abuse as children are more likely to abuse their own children. Neglect is identified twelve times more often in children living in poverty than those who do not. Yet, 

First-time parents, teenage parents, and parents who already have several children under the age of five are also at an increased risk of abusing their children. Women who do not seek antenatal care, who smoke, practice drug abuse or have a history of domestic violence during pregnancy may be at risk of abuse against their children. Sometimes, strong emotional bonds between parents and children do not develop. This absence of emotional ties occurs more often in premature babies or sick babies who are separated from their parents in early childhood or with children without biological relationships (for example, stepchildren), and this increases the risk of abuse.

 Parents, too often, don’t harm their children on purpose. Yet, as we don’t allow our children to express their feelings like adults do, we assume that we know what is best for them, and the abuse becomes acceptable. Alice Miller, the famous Polish-Swiss psychotherapist, says in one of her books, ‘’Parents are indeed capable of routinely torturing their children without anyone interceding.’’ She also admits that she was very far away from being an ideal mother, but she learned from her own experience that children are the most vulnerable human beings for being children. We can see this fact through a simple example; when someone starts harassing an adult in public, other people interfere and defend the person who is being harassed. But if an adult harrasses a kid, people usually stay quiet and let the abuse happen. Though it is obvious that children are weaker than an adult and cannot defend their rights against older people, they are less protected than adults. This is a nonsense hypocrisy and still exists. 

The belief that parents want the best for their kids may be true for most caregivers, and our society tends to believe that parents own their kids, therefore, emotional abuse is legitimated by people. Moreover, children that are victims eventually become culpable because of this parent taboo. They, too often, are punished for their ‘’mistakes’’ and for not being obedient. Thus, according to the common belief, the punishment is acceptable, even deserved.

“Again and again the child’s share of the blame is looked for and found, with the result that only extremely brutal cases is the term “child abuse” mentioned, and even then with reservations, with the broad spectrum of psychic mistreatment is disputed or even totally denied. In this way the victims’ voices are silenced almost before they are raised, and the truth, the whole objective truth, of the facts remains in obscurity.” (Miller, 1990, pp. 94-95)

Today  parents are striving to be more conscious of their children and attitudes. The social services, health workers and schools are more trained and supportive than earlier. But there is still one thing that most people are not aware of: the physical effect of emotional abuse and its impacts in future. Recent researches show that emotional abuse and neglecting cause some neurological issues that lead to a variety of problems such as cognitive disorders and socio-emotional disruptions. Indeed, emotional abuse’s impact is not a new theme in the psychology field.

Family neglect can facilitate children’s early contact with the most diverse risk environments, leaving them vulnerable to various forms of violence, which can affect their mental and physical health.

For Dodge, Pettir and Battes, the lack of affection when interacting with the child can trigger insecurity, hostility, aggression and vulnerability in their social relationships. The consequences of family neglect can be diverse and lasting. When exposing children to risk, there can be relatively small physical consequences, such as rocks and small cuts, and even serious consequences, such as hemorrhages, bone fractures and, in some cases, even death. In the long term, the consequences can be severe, such as neurological impairment, damage to physical health, and several complications that favor fragile health.

The consequences of family neglect can span generations, as parents who have been abandoned, tend to abandon their children, or neglect them.

The immediate emotional consequences are diverse, among them, isolation, low self-esteem, relationship difficulties, eating disorders, fear, anxiety, lack of confidence, depression, mental and emotional losses of various orders and chronic diseases. The latter can also remain for the rest of their lives. Among the most common long-term consequences are the risk of teenage pregnancy and contact with psychoactive substances, causing chemical dependence.

Another consequence of family neglect pointed out by Kummer is the so-called deviation or conduct disorder. This disorder is characterized by persistent patterns of socially inappropriate, aggressive or challenging conduct, with violation of social norms or individual rights.

The family and social environment plays an important role in the development and maintenance of conduct disorder. Oppositional and disobedient behavior is associated with aggressive and negligent parents and siblings, divorce from parents, large families, young mothers, low socioeconomic status, only one caregiver, etc.

Conduct disorder is more frequent between 12 and 16 years old, being almost 4 times more common in males. Approximately 20% also have some learning disorder, such as difficulty in concentrating, expressing themselves orally or in writing or memory resulting in performance below the school average. In adolescents with conduct disorder, it is possible to identify a low responsibility in the orbitofrontal area, which is responsible for the processing of reward stimuli. It can be the cause and consequence of a learning history in which punishments for bad behavior prevailed instead of reinforcement for good behaviors. Similarly, the cerebellar amygdala responds less to stimuli of intimidation and fear, and may be both the reason for not avoiding aversive stimuli that most would avoid or for getting used to living in an intimidating and threatening environment.

These violations do not meet the social expectations of the child’s age, going far beyond childish pranks or adolescent rebellion and continue to happen regularly. The diagnosis of conduct disorder is based on the presence of excessive manifestations of aggression and tyranny; cruelty towards other people or animals; destruction of the assets of others; incendiary behavior; theft or theft; sexual abuse; carrying weapons; repeated lies; low school attendance and escape from home; abnormally frequent and serious disobediences. These violations do not meet the social expectations of the child’s age, going far beyond childish pranks or adolescent rebellion and continue to happen regularly for six months or more. If these behaviors persist after the age of 18, it is diagnosed as Antisocial personality disorder (Psychopathy / Sociopathy). 

As a consequence of this, children can, for example, demonstrate antisocial behavior at school, and when school contacts parents, they do not admit that their child has difficulties, for fear of being commented on in the local community. They often prefer to deny the facts, neglecting to help their “protected” children with indifference.

In his book ‘’Emotional abuse and neglect (psychological maltreatment): A conceptual framework’’’ Glaser mentions that investigations in different countries reveal that neglect, compared to other types of abuse, is associated with greater damage to the child’s development, especially if experienced in a chronic way. Glaser, in his work Child abuse and neglect and the brain – A review, shows considerable evidence of brain damage resulting from experiences of abuse and neglect. Among neglected children, among other consequences, a reduction in brain volume has been observed, as well as biochemical, functional and brain structure changes.

Lacharité, Éthier and Nolin report that the consequences of negligence towards children can be manifested on the physical plane, which can cause children’s mortality; in the exposure to other forms of mistreatment, in the restriction of relationships provided to the child, in the family and in the living environment, in their social environment and in the plan of developmental sequelae. These numerous negative consequences generated by neglect make clear the need to look for ways to develop intervention programs that provide, in the first instance, the early identification of children living in situations of neglect and that, afterwards, mitigate or contain their negative effects, as well as how, if possible, change the family situation, in terms of the care spent.

It is interesting to note that emotional abuse is one of the most difficult forms of child abuse to diagnose. Although the research mentioned above affirm that neurological problems may be led by emotional neglect, it is not considered as harmful as physical abuse is. Generally, it is detected when associated with other severe conditions of mistreatment such as physical and sexual abuse, and although the suspicion is confirmed, the intervention of professionals and / or the legal system occurs more cautiously. As emotional abuse does not cause a visible physical harm and parent taboo interrupts the diagnosing process, most cases are missed and not intervened.

However, according to a research done in the Minnesota Mother-Child Project, between maltreated groups, emotionally neglected children showed the most dramatic decline in scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The age range of the participants were from 9 months to 24 months, which proves that the results of emotional neglect may be found before adolescence or middle age. Emotionally abused preschoolers have more difficulty in handling stressful situations, they tend to react angrier compared to non maltreated and physically abused children. It means that it is possible to recognize emotional abuse and neglect in early years of life, therefore, can be predicted.

Needs a References List

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Core Value 1. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.

I believe I have met this core value. I used the feedback from Professor Hodges on all of my short arguments to perfect them and it truly helped me develop my Research Position Paper. After reading the feedback, it gave me a great wake up call to work harder and do a bit more research on my topic. The feedback helped me to become a better writer as well as a better researcher. The best example I have of this is the revision of my rebuttal essay. I was missing some very important parts that actually make it a rebuttal essay. I thought Professor Hodges’ feedback was a little harsh at the time but it made me realize that my paper was very confusing and that I had to explain my points a bit more and refute the arguments from the opposite side. The feedback was extremely helpful and showed me that I needed to research a lot more and make the essay flow better.

Rebuttal Original and Rebuttal Rewrite

Core Value 2. My work demonstrates that I read critically, and that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create meaning by synthesizing ideas from various discourse communities. 

No one can be a good writer unless they master the skill of critical reading. I believe I met this core value in my Stone Money Essay. There were many different texts we had analyze in order to write this essay. This is where the critical reading came into play because in the essay we had to explain a lot of the sources we used and how it supports our argument. With a lot of the texts provided to me, I had to pay close attention to everything in them as well as in the podcast to be able to write this paper.

Stone Money Essay

Core Value 3. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my own writing and other texts and visual arguments.

I believe I have met the requirements for this core value in my Visual Rhetoric assignment. I had to analyze every single part of a 30 second video to figure out what was going on and why things were happening. Watching the video with no sound really helped me to stop it almost every second and analyze why things were happening. For example, in just the first frame of the video I chose, there were a number of different things to figure out. Small stuff like the time of day, whether the tide was going in or out or whether the girl on the beach was playing catch with her dad or not.

Visual Rhetoric Assignment

Core Value 4: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.

The best example I have that meets the requirements of this core value is my research position paper. This was a bit difficult because I was trying to research one specific cause of animal abuse. After looking through a number of different articles, I found some great ones to incorporate and help further my knowledge on my topic. However, there were a lot of articles that went against me but after finding some great ones, I was able to really get things going and write my essay. I found many great articles when I was perfecting this paper that helped me to add more to support my argument. Those articles refuting my argument actually helped me develop the rebuttal aspects of my paper.

Research Position Paper

Core Value 5. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation. 

I think the best example I have of this is my annotated bibliography. When writing this, I had to make sure I demonstrated my sources in the correct way and cite each one in the right way. I had to make sure the background information provided a clear understanding of the article and I presented the ideas fairly even if some of the article refuted my argument. I also included all the sources I used just for background information in my annotated bibliography as well. I thought it was important to include them even if I didn’t actually cite them in the paper.

Annotated Bibliography

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Research – shadowswife

Cultural Appropriation: Korean Pop
Trademark and Road to Success

It is difficult to imagine a society that is not influenced by music. The influence that music has may be illustrated as forms of expression or ways of living that often indicate struggles, oppression, or movements against mainstream authoritative systems. Music artists, especially those within the hip hop genre, utilize their experiences to express their political and social views as a form of social activism. With the understanding of the cultural aspect of music creation, which considers these forms of expressions, the concept of cultural appropriation takes form as the exploitation of another culture’s music creation by utilizing their language, environment, political or personal struggles without understanding the cultural foundation. In the entertainment industry, the challenge that often impacts success stems from consumer behavior, economic growth, and the industry’s culture. Understanding that there is a financial benefit to making music and that success is impacted by selling music, the issue becomes finding ways to maximize the financial benefit. Stardom in the music industry has become a stage where only a few musicians survive. How far the musician gets depends on the music industry’s adoption of the changes from consumer behavior and preferences to listening and purchasing music. This phenomenon has been indicated to impact monetary provision to music artists and creates the notion of “making it” in the music industry. It is in this area of entertainment is where cultural appropriation takes its shape in a debate between a wrongful act of misrepresentation and exploitation versus cultural appreciation for the different cultural traditions. In this arena, musicians struggle between adaptations to corporate suggestions such as producing, singing and dancing what is considered a “music hit” regardless of the negative impact that may come from a cultural appropriation challenge.

As people become aware of factors that identify other cultures, the areas that highlight cultural appropriation by others become apparent. These areas include music themes, fashion, language, the environment as well as the political and personal struggles. Cultural appropriation has become an apparent issue, especially among the genre of hip hop and rap music. Tummons (2008) indicated that the commercialization and appropriation of rap music by capitalists and the White consumer base has resulted in the adaptation of expressions that are particular to black culture. These implicated expressions include Black culture political struggles, their experiences in their neighborhoods, which includes police encounters, living conditions, incarceration, drug dealing, and guns, as well as baggy gangster-like attire and hear style. Further, Lenard and Balint (2020) indicated that cultural appropriation presents stereotyping of cultural minority practices that are deemed a misrepresentation of the culture, and it is seen as an offensive act. Knowing that the appropriation of rap music has been commercialized and that a stereotypic impression has been branded to the use of black music by other artists, it is difficult to distinguish the difference between someone appropriating the culture and someone respectfully appreciating it. However, it is imperative for an individual to understand the definition of cultural appropriation and how it is applied. With this in mind, there are numerous cultures that have adopted other culture’s behaviors and standards to make them their own without a proper appreciation for the cultural traditions.

The marginalization of specific groups has also been implicated in cultural appropriation. In this area, Ramsey, Warren, and Owerka-Moore (n.d.) indicated that ideas from a marginalized group are inappropriately adopted by another group for self-gain. This inappropriate adaptation is noted among low socioeconomic groups with the purpose of exploiting their culture for economic or social gain. Further, Lenard and Balint (2020) stated that cultural misrepresentation had been shown to be similar to cultural appropriation in the way in which a culture’s beliefs and experiences are misappropriated. Thus, cultural appropriation gives a false depiction of practices and beliefs, which often leads to a stereotype of the exploited group. This is an important aspect that gives validity to the argument that certain groups make use of Black hip hop artist’s music without understanding the background of the themes or the message that the lyrics carry. For example, it has been noted by de Luna (2020) that language and personal appearance, which includes hairstyle and clothing particular to Black culture, is being used by Korean-pop artists in their music themes. This form of exploitation within the music industry has become a norm, and popular groups such as the Korean popular music group known as BTS has benefited from using Black culture and its expletive language and appearance for self-popularity.

The Korean music industry has illustrated the act of cultural appropriating Black culture without the understanding of its foundation or its political and social implications. For example, Korean artists use Black culture, especially the hip hop genre, as an outlet for their inspiration. The influence of Black culture is evident in Korean artists’ music, lyrics, music videos, dance style, and the clothes they wear. This adaption of the hip hop genre has been implicated as an act of cultural exploitation. In this area, Rogers (2006) states that cultural exploitation denotes the taking of elements of an oppressed society by a dominant culture without consent and proper compensation. This is an issue that has been implicated by supporters of Cultural appropriation as being a wrongful misrepresentation of Black artists and the message they are trying to portray.  In this regard, Korean pop artists have been implicated in exploiting Black hip hop culture for self-gain. One Korean artist whose stage name is G-Dragon from the group Big Bang has been dramatically implicated in the cultural appropriation of Black culture. According to Oh (2014), the appropriation of hip hop is illustrated in the music video, “One of a Kind.” In this particular music video, a combination of rhyming lyrics, heavy-handed gestures, tattoos, gold chains, graffiti as the backdrop is utilized to show off the gangster-style appearance that is often illustrated in Black hip hop videos. The details in G-Dragon’s work are significant towards the ongoing oppression of Black lives. Every detail symbolizes rebellion against the authority that continues to suppress them unjustly. G-Dragon, who is Korean, has not undergone the kind of mistreatment African- Americans have gone through because of the complexion of their skin or their experience with authority. In this regard, G-Dragon incorporates these elements of hip hop in his songs and music videos without the understanding of the significance behind what he wears, the lyrics used, or the dancing moves that are applied. In this regard, G-Dragon sees the financial benefit and the fame that comes from attracting more listeners.

The impact that cultural appropriation has on Black culture leads to many Black artists being discredited for their influence on music and not being respected adequately for taking pride in their work. This is illustrated in the manner in which Black artists are compensated by other artists who contract them for lyrics and video performance. For example, de Luna (2020) indicated the lack of compensation for the work that Grammy-award winner, songwriter, and musician Tiffany Red. Ms. Red was compensated poorly by the South Korean music publisher for a song that was written for the k-pop popular group known as NCT Dream. The sixty-six dollar monetary compensation that was provided to Tiffany Red was a clear illustration of the lack of compensation that has been implicated by the Korean pop music industry. This type of exploitation of Black culture shows another significant issue that warrants a discussion. In this area, the more dominant culture is able to capitalize on the element from Black culture and use it to receive high praises and financial benefits while the Black culture is exploited.

When considering the impact of imposition from a dominant culture onto a subordinate culture, the appropriation of culture is illustrated in the manner in which dominance takes form. For example, when Black hip-hop artists write songs for Korean pop artists, and the compensation is inadequate, the imposition of dominance is implicated. Within the realm of cultural dominance, Rogers (2006) indicated that the consideration of the subordinate culture’s political, cultural, economic, or military powers gives the dominant culture the ability to choose whether or not to appropriate from the subordinate culture. This is an exciting view of the reference to cultural appropriation because Black artists who may be struggling in the music industry may contract-out to other cultures to alleviate the financial strain. In this area, one can see the issue of the Korean pop music industry taking advantage of Black artists who are not making money and imposing their greater power within the industry to get them to write songs for low compensation.

From an oppression point of reference, cultural appropriation takes form in the manner in which one culture profits from another culture’s experiences. In this area, Matthes (2018) illustrates this conception by stating the example of the use of one particular culture’s social problem by another culture without having gone through the experience. Here, Matthes (2018) indicates how a Black woman’s unruliness, loudness and lewdness—all of which can be seen as stereotypes– is taken for granted by a White woman for self-profit without having to deal with the social problem herself. To further explain this view, one can apply it to the apparel that is used by hip hop artists. The dressed style often used in hip hop fashion has taken popularity in different countries. Eun-byel (2018) indicated that there is a rise in the baggy and large-sized clothing among young people in Korea that has created a common trend. When this fashion is analyzed for its oppressive stance and the profit that is gained by one culture at the expense of another, one can see the issue of cultural appropriation. In both examples, the Black woman’s implied character (e.g., unruliness, loudness, and lewdness) and the baggy apparel are both used by a culture or people that have not had the same experiences or have encountered the same social problems.

In light of the discussions that identify the implication of misrepresentation and exploitation of a subordinated culture by a dominant culture, the concept of cultural appropriation as an adverse inference has provided the ground for a contradiction. The countered argument redirects the notion of cultural appropriation with parameters and amplifiers that provides context to the wrongfulness that underlines cultural appropriation and sets the idea that there may be a dependent factor by the subordinate culture that must be met.  In this area, Lenard and Balint (2020) indicated that cultural offense, misrepresentation, or stereotyping requires one’s cultural beliefs and norms to be insulted and humiliated by acts that are offensive or that misrepresents and stereotype a culture. Further, Lenard and Balint (2020) utilized conditions of taking, value, contested, and ignorance as well as amplifiers such as power inequality as means of conditions that should be considered in discussions of cultural appropriation. These conditions become essential because of the notion that the appropriator uses the provider in a way that demoralizes the culture. To simplify the argument, one can revert to the use of a culturally-specific attire by another culture. In this example, one can note that when a person goes to visit an Islamic country, in particular, the women must wear a hijab. The idea that a female music performer is culturally appropriating the hijab may not be so clear, especially when it is a norm in the Islamic culture. This understanding provides the foundation that has led to claims that the use of another culture’s beliefs, experiences, norms, language, or attire is a form of cultural appreciation rather than cultural appropriation. Furthermore, an argument can be made that takes into account the diversity among different people and how it may be celebrated by way of culinary appreciation. Archterling (2012) noted the celebration of diversity with a U.S. Naval ship by way of cooking a meal that reflects another culture’s culinary preference. This form of appreciation for another culture allows for counter-argument regarding cultural appropriation versus cultural appreciation.

Diversity among different cultures has become a global celebration that allows the appreciation of different cultural values. In addition, professional skills that allow interactions between different cultures has been noted to be an asset in the professional setting. As indicated by Bennett (2019), this appreciation is seen in college and university campuses where different organizations engage in experiences such as culture, food, and fashion with other cultures. In this area, students engage in celebrating another culture by eating their food, participating in traditional dances, and wearing traditional clothing. Further, Dhadda (2014) indicated that cultural appreciation is also identified as an essential professional development skill that allows for effective engagement with other cultures in the workplace. This is an essential aspect of the professional development of administration in any company that is engaging with consumers. The ability to interact with consumers would require an understanding of a culture so that there are discussion and buy-in between the parties. Paralleled with these indications, Han (2019) indicated that the teaching of Art embraces an appreciation of different cultural images.

These ideas of cultural appreciation prompt the notion that there is a line between cultural appropriation and cultural appreciation that may be difficult to see. For example, when reviewing the issue of misrepresentation and exploitation of a subculture group by a dominant group as in the case of Black music and Korean pop music, the argument becomes about the purpose behind the appropriator and provider (e.g., Korean pop artist as the appropriator and Black music artist as the provider). According to Hurt (2018), Korean pop artists make use of rap music and its epitaphs as a form of attribution to previous artists in the genre that provides inspiration for their music. Hurt (2018) also indicates that Korean pop artists are not claiming an invention of rap music but rather an appreciation of it. This counter-argument indicated by Korean pop artists exemplifies that there is a line ascribed between cultural appropriation and cultural appreciation, which, according to Han (2019), needs to be considered. In this area, the communication between the opposing parties—Black artists and Korean pop artists—would need to understand the transcend that came from earlier starts of a Black music artist that allowed for the mainstream transformation of Black music. According to Danielsen (2012), the ability to utilize rhythms that were known to be Black but not heard as Black catapulted pop music and provided Michael Jackson the ability to market his music without being regarded by race. This idea has come to be known as crossover and provides the foundation for the argument that can be made against cultural appropriation.

Within these stated conclusions and debates between cultural appropriation and cultural appreciation, one common theme emerges, which is noted to be whether it is a “bad or good” intention. Weiss (2017) stated that there are instances where popularity and the use of another culture’s tradition (i.e., ninja suits by dancers or kimono attire or cornrows hairstyle) by music artists may be regarded as exploiting and misrepresenting another culture. On the other hand, Weiss (2017) also indicated that in the speeches given by Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., there was a language used that was particular to the trials of Israelites. In the former example, the intentions were bad if the cultural tradition was viewed as a misrepresentation of cultural traditions by using ninja suits or kimonos and cornrows. In the latter example, the words utilized by Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. provided remarks towards a movement for social justice and equal rights. Therefore, when taken into consideration, these two examples implicate the intention to misrepresent and exploit a culture versus the intention to appreciate another culture.

In conclusion, the challenge that plagues music artists still remains an issue of durability within the music industry. These challenges are attributed to the industry’s promotion as well as the adaptation to consumer choice and preferences. The challenge between cultural appropriation and cultural appreciation has also factored into the challenge that music artists face. The argument and debate regarding misrepresentation and exploitation of a subordinate culture by a dominant culture have been implicated heavily among Black artists and Korean pop artists. The downfall of another culture has implicated the success of one culture. It has brought some animosity between those who view Black artists’ experiences, political struggles, and cultural traditions in appearance and language in the music scene as a misrepresentation and exploitation of their character. In this area, the notion that Black artists are being used, underpaid, and devalued for their impact in the music industry by way of not providing credit for their contributions by Korean pop artists has taken center stage in the debate of appropriation and appreciation. As it always seems to be the case, there are different points of reference to what is being implicated. On the one hand, there are those that would argue the view of cultural appropriation as a misrepresentation, exploitation, and a form of a stereotype of Black artists’ struggles and political views. On the other hand, there are others that would argue that it is not cultural appropriation and that it is a cultural appreciation via a celebratory act of inclusion. From these arguments and suggestions one can understand the imposition from both areas and may decide to venture into their own interpretations of the issues. Perhaps, the idea that should replace the debate between cultural appropriation versus cultural appreciation among Black artists and Korean pop artist should be grounded on not seeing color or race. This disregard for “blackness” in the American music industry afforded the ability of Michael Jackson to succeed. Regardless of the stance taken the trademark and road to success is an issue that will be viewing them differently by supporters and by opposition. As they rise to fame and fortune, Korean pop artists will continue to enlist Black artists’ music themes to increase sales and performance while Black artists will continue to make their music. The pressing issues then become the intent behind the actions as well as the interpretation by the appropriators and the providers.


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Bennett, M. (2019, July 22). How U.S. Universities Embrace Diversity and Culture. U.S. News Global Education. Retrieved from

Danielsen, A. (2012). The Sound of Crossover: Micro-rhythm and Sonic Pleasure in Michael Jackson’s “Don’t Stop ‘till You get Enough.” Popular Music & Society, 35(2), 151-168. Retrieved from

de Luna, E. (2020, July 20). ‘They use our culture’: The Black creatives and fans holding K-pop accountable. The Gardian. Retrieved from

Dhadda, S. (2014). Student life – an appreciation of diversity. Nursing Standard (2014+), 28(28), 66. Retrieved from

Eun-byel, I. (2018, February 23). [Weekender] Dress down to be hip, hop on fashion stage. The Korean Herald. Retrieved from

Han, H. (2019). Moving From Cultural Appropriation to Cultural Appreciation. Art Education, 72(2), 8–13. Retrieved from

Hurt, M. (2018, October 16). How K-pop gets away with cultural appropriation – of R&B, hip hop and bubblegum pop. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from

Lenard, P.T., & Balint, P. (2020). What is (the wrong of ) cultural appropriation? Ethnicities, 20(2), 331-352. Retrieved from

Matthes, E. (2018). Cultural appropriation and oppression. Philosophical Studies, 176(4), 1003–1013. Retrieved from

Oh, C. (2014). Performing Post-Racial Asianness: K-Pop’s Appropriation of Hip-Hop Culture. [abstract]. Cambridge University Press Journals HSS, Vol.2014, 121-125. Retrieved from

Rogers, R. A. (2006). From Cultural Exchange to Transculturation: A Review and Reconceptualization of Cultural Appropriation. Communication Theory.16. 474-503. Retrieved from

Tummons, J. P. (2008).  Cultural Assimilation, Appropriation and Commercialization: Authenticity in Rap Music, 1997–2004. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2008. Retrieved from

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Ramsey, F., Warren, J., & Owerka-Moore, A. (n.d.). Cultural Appropriation [PDF].    9-Cultural_Approp-Viewing_Guide.pdf

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Causal Rewrite- cardinal

Diversity, Technology, and the Superiority of Streaming Services

When consumers express a want, a shrewd business will deliver. The film and television industries thrive because they have spent decades upon decades tailoring their products to the desires of their audiences, but modern Hollywood fails to do so in a major way: it lacks the diversity audiences want. Now, though, Hollywood has competition. Streaming services are taking the film and television industries by storm, and this new form of entertainment distribution responds to the growing desire for diversity that a shrewd producer wouldn’t ignore.

Contrary to a popular Hollywood belief, diversity sells. In the 2015-16 season of television and movies, diverse content had the “highest box office and viewership numbers” according to a UCLA study. Audiences have only gotten hungrier for diversity since then, as seen by social media, where hashtags such as #RepresentationMatters are being used this very minute, and by the overwhelming successes of 2017’s Get Out and 2018’s Black Panther. However, in the words of Marina Fang in her Huffington Post article “Audiences Want Diversity In Hollywood. Hollywood’s Been Slow To Get The Message,” Hollywood sees these successes as “the exception rather than the rule.” A demand as loud as the demand for diversity cannot go unheard, though, and streaming services have stepped in where conventional Hollywood is failing.

The newness of streaming naturally puts companies such as Netflix and Hulu on the cutting edge. A forward-thinking business listens attentively to what younger audiences want and finds out how to deliver it in the most satisfactory way possible. The coveted 18-34 age demographic wants diversity, and teenaged audiences want it even more. Knowing that today’s youth are tomorrow’s primary consumers, it’s logical for streaming services to create content that will please the younger demographic, gain their trust, and make them long-term customers. 

Also, streaming services have the ability to not only keep tabs on what audiences want but to deliver content tailored to an individual through algorithms- a luxury film and television don’t have as they are not digital platforms. Algorithms give a content provider “insight into every second of the viewing experience,” says Ted Sarandos, Netflix’s Chief Content Officer, in the book Distribution Revolution: Conversations about the Digital Future of Film and Television as quoted in Popular Communication. The data shows that viewers watch content with diverse casts, and streaming services see that data first hand- it’s built into their structure. That knowledge leads to action. If audiences want diversity, then streaming services will deliver the highest quality diverse content they can in order to win over customers, thus gaining an edge over Hollywood.

Given their social advantage, streaming services could grow larger than Hollywood and cause the old Tinseltown machine to fizzle into irrelevance. Audiences trust streaming services with diversity, but streaming wins audiences over in more ways than that. People are drawn to “on-demand” entertainment, described by media scholar Amanda Lotz in her book The Television Will Be Revolutionized and quoted in the journal Popular Communication as programming “produced in any decade” that can be watched anywhere, from “‘living room’ sets” to “portable devices.” Also, as far as specifically television programming is concerned, consumers are cutting the cord. Between the high prices of cable and the fact that streaming offers not only more diverse content but more content in general, people are ditching cable and switching to non-wired, non-network content delivery. Granted, the cable industry is stable, but its allure is coming into question. It no longer has complete control over consumers’ television habits. In the future, streaming could very well become the dominant television industry. It could become the dominant film and TV industry in general. Hollywood is socially out of date, the industry isn’t changing meaningfully, and streaming is more convenient to top it all off. Diversity is the future. Technology is the future. Streaming is in line with the trajectory of societal progression. Audiences and professionals have been petitioning Hollywood to change for years, and a time may come when audiences turn their backs on Hollywood and turn toward an industry that has earned their trust.

Another factor worth mentioning is the COVID-19 pandemic. When the world had no choice but to stay inside, many people turned to entertainment to bide their time, and streaming services hooked a significant amount of new customers. In the case of Netflix, the number of new subscribers reached as high as over ten million between March and May 2020. In the United Kingdom, as much as 55% of adults who newly subscribed to streaming during the pandemic said that they would continue their subscriptions and keep up their watching habits even as lockdown restrictions lessened, according to the UK Office of Communications’ Media Nations 2020 study. Major studios also tested the water of digital distribution, releasing new movies digitally since audiences physically could not go to theaters. The pandemic proved how valuable and enticing streaming and digital content is to audiences and businesses alike. The industry no doubt took note of the role that streaming played during lockdown, and it could mean a shift in focus for how entertainment is delivered and consumed.

The pandemic also made racial diversity more relevant than ever. The issue of racial equality came into public awareness on an unavoidable level during the lockdown months with Black Lives Matter protests happening across the globe. The ripple effect of this social revolution inevitably makes its way to entertainment, as mainstream art is often expected to reflect real life. Non-diverse casts will no longer be acceptable. Stereotyping will no longer be acceptable. Hollywood needs to step up, unless they come up with an out.

Hollywood might simply absorb the streaming industry. At the end of the day, Hollywood is a business. The largest possible profit is the goal. If diversity will bring in that profit, then Hollywood studios can essentially hire others to take care of diversity for them by purchasing companies like Netflix. Studios won’t have to labor over changing their system at a fundamental level and they can expand their assets. Racial equality activists might have a different endgame in mind, but one can only expect so much from corporations.


Burroughs, B. (2018). House of Netflix: Streaming media and digital lore. Popular Communication, 17(1), 1–17.

Curtin, M., Holt, J., Sanson, K., & Sutter, K. (2014). Distribution revolution conversations about the digital future of film and television. Oakland, CA: University of California Press.

Fang, M. (2018, February 27). Audiences Want Diversity In Hollywood. Hollywood’s Been Slow To Get The Message. Retrieved October 27, 2020, from

Lopez, R. (2017, November 06). Despite Dollars in Diversity, Hollywood Still Averse to Making Inclusive Films. Retrieved October 27, 2020, from

Lotz, A. D. (2014). The television will be revolutionized. New York, NY: New York University Press.Rajan, A. (2020, August 05). TV watching and online streaming surge during lockdown. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from

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Reflective- runnnerd4

Self Reflective Statement

Core Value 1. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.

I am confident that I have met this core value. The main way that I have met this core value is through the way I used the feedback I received from Professor Hodges and from our conferences. Although some of the feedback was brutal, it was exactly what I needed. This feedback helped me become a better writer because my mistakes were not sugar-coated. Instead, they were pointed out and I was led in the right direction for fixing them. I think that the best example I have of this is through the revision I had to do of my definition/categorical essay. I completely rewrote my definition essay. In a conference, Professor Hodges pointed out that I could use my definition essay for better topics such as distractions, APIs, and the concept of critical driving decisions. Although I felt pretty upset at first from the feedback I received, I realized that he had made a great point, so I took his advice and changed the topics I discussed in my definition essay. 

Definition Original vs Definition Rewrite

Core Value 2. My work demonstrates that I read critically, and that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create meaning by synthesizing ideas from various discourse communities. 

I am sure that I have met the requirements for this core value. The main piece of work that I can think of that I met this core value in is my Stone Money essay. The new point of view of money was pretty hard to understand at first because it went against everything I thought I knew about the concept of money. Due to how complicated the topic was, I had to be sure to read and listen critically to understand the ideas that each of the writers and contributors were trying to get across. In this non-portfolio task, I had to synthesize the ideas of three different sources into my own writing. Putting together these ideas proved to be difficult, but through this task, I realized that I am fully capable of putting together many sources on one topic, which proved to be a helpful form of practice for when I moved onto my research paper. 

Core Value 3. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my own writing and other texts and visual arguments.

I am sure that I have met the criteria for this core value. The best example I have of demonstrating this core value is in my visual rhetoric assignment. I had to fully analyze every element of the video I watched, including questioning whether or not the kids in the video were honestly his children. The directors of the video chose to use each visual to motivate the audience, fathers, to be more involved in the life of their children. I successfully analyzed the directors’ rhetoric. I was able to analyze this work and even was able to conclude that the visuals were not effective. Although I had learned a little about how to analyze rhetoric in his school, I would have never been able to analyze at this level without taking Comp II.

Core Value 4: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.

The most prominent example I have of the fourth core value in my work is in my research paper and the three smaller papers that built into my research paper. My topic of increasing the speed limit was a tough one to research. There were so many sources going against my idea, but instead of being discouraged, I was happy that my topic was not something that has been as widely discussed as something like the dangers of speeding. I had to do extensive research to find evidence that supported the pieces of my position. To my surprise, a good amount of the evidence that I did find was from academic sources, and as soon as I gathered the evidence that I needed, it was pretty easy to get the ball rolling with my essays.

Core Value 5. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation. 

My work that best displays my embodiment of the fifth core value is my annotated bibliography. Due to the fact that my position was very commonly disputed, I had to make sure that I was not pulling bits and pieces of arguments and taking them out of context. Although I was tempted multiple times to take some of the evidence that I found out of context, I knew it was wrong and I figured that if the other source could use it for their opposing argument, it probably would not work too well for mine. Considering that the annotated bibliography included a background section, it was also more or less impossible to sneak a piece of out of context information into my paper. In my bibliography I also made sure to mention the sources that I did not directly cite in my paper because I am sure that they still affected my writing in one way or another and to not cite them would be wrong. Something that was also very helpful to me for learning how to cite properly was the APA citation workshop activity we did in class. It helped me understand how to incorporate an APA citation into my writing, which is something I have never done before.

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definition rewrite-612119d

New thesis

 A mandatory Mass program in the United States would have a positive effect on saving human lives while doing great things for the economy. This idea to be true because the less human life  lost the more the faster the economy would be able to open back up since businesses would be able to run since the wide spread of covid-19 wouldn’t occur so fast. It would also help prevent another massive shutdown of the local and Country by wearing such a cheap product over the face.  Keeping Americans healthy should be the primary goal in defeating the virus.

Covid-19 lockdowns happened in early March in some areas of the United States. Everything was shut down, schools ,  businesses  and restaurants we’re all closed down and students were sent home.We started hearing  the terms social distancing and even heard the mention of masks which wasn’t a common part of american life.  While the first lockdown has concluded and another one on the horizon could be like if we can help stop the spread of the Coronavirus. That’s why Mask-wearing is ultra important. When the mask covers both your nose and mouth it will help prevent others from getting sick even if you have the virus. It will also help protect yourself against people who do have the virus.  Having everyone in the community wear a mask will help prevent a loophole in which the Coronavirus could re enter our communities again. This is a protective measure that we can afford to have.  It will limit the potential spread and potentially save a family member of yours. While mask alone won’t end the pandemic but offer a valuable barrier along with pairing it along with socially distancing and hand washing. Combining all 3 would  have significant benefits which could help prevent another shutdown and cause the economy to crash which would put many people out of work. According to one doctor study “Considering a fixed transmission rate, 80% adoption of 20%, 50%, and 80% effective masks reduces cumulative relative (absolute) mortality by 1.8%”. This means if 80% of American wore masks and on average  the people that died would be almost 2%. When you break the numbers down it comes to roughly 4000 americas. America needs to listen to the doctors and health experts since they are recommending we wear the masks. Is it our best intention to start wearing them so we can get back to normal? Since  doctors have concluded that wearing a mask  has no downside and could possible prevent a nationwide shutdown combining with the fact it would allow us to go back to normal faster it seems like a no brainer

 In march everything was shut down and it almost seemed like the world was almost ending. There were copious amounts of people lining up to get food with limits on the amount of meat each family could get. Having another outbreak like that would cause tons of problems with the american healthcare system  but also another there wallets. The second wave of shutdowns is approaching upon us so restaurants, gyms, schools and other businesses shut down for the second time.  This would not only hurt families but devastated business owners a second time.  The US economy usually hinges on what top  politicians say such as the president or higher ranking senators. What they say to the media has an immediate impact on the stock market. Which could be beneficial but also could work against it as well .  In times of crisis like for example a pandemic, experts in healthcare stepin.  Scientists and healthcare workers will always side of caution which leads to politicians being put under more pressure.  Laws will go up preventing people from going out and followed by the business closing ,  followed by the stock market taking a beating. When the financial crisis hit in 2007  One estimate had been taken and 10000 lives were lost because of it. This could be a potential 2.0 if another shutdown would be in sight.  People need to work to support their families there’s no other way around it and if we want to prevent long-term suffering we need to be able to keep people working to their best of their abilities during this pandemic. Experts suggest “a real risk of a vicious downward spiral of illness and impoverishment.” If we don’t get this virus under control. We need to do everything possible not to let that happen and right now having to require a mask looks like our best option according to our nation’s doctors and many Health experts. Their priorities lie with the people’s mass safety. life may not go back to normal as soon as we would like to or in many cases need it to. We need to do our part to help end this pandemic.

 The split between Republican and Democrat has gone further and further which has ended up putting the common american at a disadvantage.News is not reliable anymore and sometimes run with the same story by spinning it in two ways. Republican senators were uneasy about the virus credibility and have often claimed it’s been over exaggerated and even were preaching against masks. That was until the president and members of his team ended up getting covid and had to be airlifted to the hospital. How we can go from its fake to preaching no mask to the president being in the hospital. People feel like they’re being lied to or have been betrayed by the media in the past and now refuse to listen to them because of that.  Health officials have been stressing how important it’s been to wear masks but many people don’t regard them since they believe it’s fake or isn’t as serious as some made it out to be by their own president. Having this disconnect is putting lives at risk with communication errors in a time where commuinicqtion has never flown so fast. We need to start looking at covid like a war instead of a battle. This will not be gone in a few weeks ,It’s a war, it will be won or lost in the lab with doctors and other lead Health experts leading thew charge  . However, this will happen only if scientists and healthcare workers are heard by the people and not belittled . We need to keep doing everything we have been recommended.

Scientists and health experts have stated wearing a mask has no downside and when it increases your chances of getting sick in any way. Even though there isn’t enough data to prove the point in small settings it has at least shown some effectiveness to prevent spread of covid-19 and to that we can’t argue. while they may be annoying it could save someone’s life and help the economy not shut down again which everyone can agree on.

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Definition Rewrite- runnerd4

Understanding Key Contributors of Accident Causation

It is important to have a strong understanding of the characteristics of a highway before considering increasing the speed limit on them across the nation. In America, we have interstate highways and other arterials. According to the U.S. Department of Transportation in their article “Road Function Classifications,” the interstate system is made up of arterial roads that “provide the highest level of mobility and the highest speeds over the longest interrupted distance.” Interstate highways pass through several states. An example of an interstate highway is I-95 which begins near the Canadian border in Maine and ends in Miami Florida. According to the U.S. Department of Transportation in their article “Road Function Classifications,” the category of other arterials “include freeways, multilane highways, and other important roadways that supplement the interstate system,” and connect busy areas like cities and industrialized areas. An example of these arterials is NJ- Route 55. The interstate system and other arterial roads fit in the category of roads in which the speed limits should be increased. 

Next, it is important to understand some of the main factors involved in the causation of accidents. Accident-prone interactions, or APIs, are arguably the most important concept to understand. According to David Navone in his study “The Paradox of Driving Speed,” APIs are instances in which two vehicles come in close proximity of each other. There are multiple types of APIs. According to Navone, the four types are “(a) when cars moving on intersecting roads come at about the same time to an intersection, (b) when cars moving in opposite directions on the same undivided road pass each other, (c) when cars moving in the same direction on different lanes of the same road momentarily drive next to each other, and (d) when a car coming from the rear of another one switches lanes next to the other one (either by switching to an adjacent lane to overtake it, or by returning to the original lane).”  It is a very simple concept; when two vehicles come near each other, an API occurs. Increasing the speed limit on highways would decrease the amount of time that each API takes to occur, decreasing the likelihood of the occurrence of an accident.

The next main factor is distractions. There are many different types of distractions that a driver experiences in their commute. Anything that makes it so the driver does not give their full attention to the road is a distraction. According to the CDC in the article “Distracted Driving,” there are three main categories of distractions; visual, cognitive, and manual. An example of a visual distraction is looking at something in the car, such as the radio. A cognitive distraction would be doing anything that takes the driver’s mind off of driving and onto another subject. Manual distractions include distractions that have the driver’s hands off the wheel such as phone usage or eating. One very common distraction nowadays is drivers selecting music to play in the car from their phone. Apps such as Apple Music, Spotify, Pandora, and Youtube put millions of songs in the driver’s hands and cause a new distraction every few minutes when the driver chooses a new song. 

There was also a good point made in the article from the NHTSA called “Distractions in and Out of the Vehicle” when the author explained that there are also distractions outside of the vehicle including “crash scenes, road construction, and people, places, or things of interest alongside the road.” Paying attention to these distractions causes the driver to no longer have their full attention on the road, even though these distractions are on the road. The driver becomes more focused on that view than on the cars around them.

Finally, there is the concept of critical driving decisions. Critical driving decisions are the decisions made by drivers that either cause or avoid accidents. Many of these decisions occur at intersections. One example is when a driver needs to time their left turn at a green light or a stop sign based on the incoming traffic. If the driver times their turn incorrectly, there could be a few results. The driver could end up hitting or getting hit by the car coming straight through in the intersection, causing a head-on or t-bone style accident. Next, the driver could force the incoming traffic to slam on their brakes, setting up the scene for a possible rear-end accident for the oncoming drivers. Finally, the driver could go into the turn at a speed unfit for the turn and have a whole different type of accident by losing control of their vehicle. Timing the turn correctly would allow the driver to avoid each of these possible accident situations. An example of a critical driving decision not at an intersection is deciding when to change lanes on a highway. If the driver decides to change lanes too early, they could get rear-ended by the vehicle traveling in another lane, which could lead to a multiple car accident as everyone slams on their breaks. These critical driving decisions are exactly what their name describes them as, critical. Making the right decision allows the driver to go on with their day and commute, but making the wrong decision could very easily lead to an accident with serious injury or death involved for any of the drivers. 

Having a strong understanding of the category of roads being considered to increase the speed limit is very important. This category is arterial roads which include major highways and the interstate system. It is also important to understand the contributors to the causation of accidents such as API rates, distractions, and critical driving decisions. Without understanding these topics, it is easy to be falsely led into believing that speeding is what causes accidents. Considering the other contributors makes it simple to see that increasing the speed limit is not as dangerous as one would initially believe. There are many other more prevalent contributors than speeding in the causation of accidents.


U.S Department of Transportation. (2000, November). Road Function Classifications. Retrieved October 9, 2020, from

 Navon, D. (2002, January 30). The paradox of driving speed: Two adverse effects on highway accident rate. Retrieved September 25, 2020, from

“Distracted Driving.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 26 Oct. 2020,

“Distractions: In and Out of the Vehicle.” NHTSA,

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Core Value 1. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.

I would like  my practice openings/my thesis. I feel like I started at a completely different place and had a completely different mindset before I was going into this assignment. I’ve changed and decided to go in a different route because of the data I received. We had a bunch of different exercises to gain from this assignment but this  shed some light on where my first idea started and what they’ve come to now.  This assignment really let me make mistakes early on and fix them rather than wait till the end of the year and have no idea what I’m really doing.I found  out that might have bought this was wrong originally so I ended up changing it later on something I would never have considered before.

Core Value 2. My work demonstrates that I read critically, and that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create meaning by synthesizing ideas from various discourse communities.

This assignment I was going against my thesis which was really hard for me to do. I had to find articles that suggested to me why masks could potentially be unsafe or cause harm. When writing this paper it helped me strengthen my other arguments because it let me see where people would attack my doubts from. When finding sources they tied into each other but since they did it still found a way to be an effective argument. When crafting this argument I had to actually look at my sources and see how they would tie in with each other and see if they would fill out with the rest of my paper instead of just pulling three random sources that I thought fit.

Core Value 3. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my own writing and other texts and visual arguments.

In our visual rhetoric assignment we had to take a deep dive at the commercial we were looking at. We had to look at the small details so we really had to pay attention which is a little hard for me since my mind is running 1000 miles per hour. This assignment made me focus up on details that I would have 100 percent missed. We had to pick up on who they video was made for and why it was targeting them. In my video I missed the door bell to the house up until the professor meeting.

Core Value 4: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.

I would say my casual rewrite is my best work of this. We had to find evidence on why we supported our side and in the processes of doing that changed my mind on the whole project. My sources were originally how masks would affect the economy in a bad way but switched when I found tons of sources to back up saying it would do better if masks were allowed. In this paper we had to create our own problem then decide what side of it we were really on which was something different but fun for me because I like to argue.

Core Value 5. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation. 

For this work we had to give our side of the argument And think critically on why people would argue on the other side. In the case of this I personally used personal experience/common sense on how I viewed these potential problems. When I mentioned the strict parents part I understood that because I had really strict parents growing up. When they dug into the shrug issues I used both my common sense and prior knowledge. I tried to understand why some laws would be in place and what they could do make them better and more ethical.I learned that sometimes giving your perspective is actually what the audience wants but you have to be fair and consider the dad up before.

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612119d causal rewrite

A mandatory Mass program in the United States would have a positive effect on saving human lives while doing great things for the economy. This idea to be true because the less human life  lost the more the faster the economy would be able to open back up since businesses would be able to run since the wide spread of covid-19 wouldn’t occur so fast. It would  prevent another massive shutdown locally and federally.  Americans’ health should be the primary goal in this war against the virus.

In an article published  from Ohio, having a mask mandate would help the economy,because there would be less uncertainty. The hardest hit by this pandemic would be the working class and the lower class.  They need to work  and dont have the luxury to take off and care for themselves if they get sick, which could prevent them going to the doctors all together. Masks  are relatively  cheap and very attainable for every american to get. “The value of a statistical life is around $10 million.’’ Saving only a few lives with this would have a massive economical impact.  At the same time it is almost as important it is to keep the economy going since some families can’t afford another shutdown. “In a survey published by Scioto Analysis this morning, 38 out of 40 Ohio economists said that the economic benefits of mask mandates outweighed the economic costs.”  They agreed on how important it is for the middle class and lower-income class to not be out of work again since it is them whom the virus can have the biggest impact on. These next couple months need to be done strategically so we don’t get led into a major recession. 

As Americans, we can all look at the Coronavirus as almost as our world war and we need everyone’s help to win it. In world war 2 , some of the women needed to go to work since men were sent off to fight. Everyone contributed to the fight and american won. While we aren’t fighting a war like that, we are fighting a microbe war in which America needs everyone again.  A Goldman Sachs study estimated that a nationwide mask mandate would save America $1 trillion, or 5% of the country’s Gross Domestic Product. With 1 trillion dollars at stake, it isn’t just about the lives   that could be saved. When you break it down person by person it would approximately save the average american  $3,000 per person if the mask mandate was followed.  Considering the amount of money the government already handed out another stimulus check would be extremely costly.

If a mask policy was put into place it could potentially save more than 100,000 lives by this February alone. While these numbers may seem really high this is the main reason scientists are preaching mask wearing. One hundred thousand people is more than any terrorist attack that ever happened in America, and this time we can prevent these deaths by Americans  doing such a simple task and wearing a mask along with socially distancing. At the current moment we don’t have a cure or a vaccine against this virus so we don’t know different people would react if they become infected. In states where a mask mandate was the strictest the numbers have started to go down and proved that masked mandates  have been working and will continue to work.  Since these numbers could get a lot  Higher than what they , we need to take this seriously and almost as a terroristic threat because the life loss could be worse than anything that came before this

Preventing sucide is a major concern with the direct link by the virus but the economic side as well. An oxford researchers “compared suicide data from before  2007 with the years of the crisis and found more than 10,000 “economic suicides” associated with the recession across the U.S., Canada and Europe”Melanie Haiken . If the country  shuts down again, a 2.0 of this event could be an unfortunate side effect of the lock down. Another lockdown would mean job loss, and the stock market would fall to mid march numbers again. “The soaring unemployment rate and stock market losses caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, combined with millions of people quarantining at home alone creates the “perfect storm” for an increased risk of suicide for many people, according to the JAMA article.”As the cases continue to rise across our country again during this fall season and into the dreaded flu season, there is a significant fear the suicide rate will definitely up if the shutdown occurs again. Mental health is a big issue in this country and people are currently struggling, “I wish we could take social distancing out of our dictionary. Because we are social beings. We can’t socially distance. We are social beings. We can physically distance. Which I like better,” said Steen. These lives are not directly affected by covid-19, but will be saved if wearing a mask  where the common people could get back to their social connections and finances. Cases look to still be on the rise in the US , we need to find a solution before it’s too late.

The  lives lost by this pandemic will never be able to be brought back. We need to consider this as our best option.This seems like it when you weigh everything out. When you look at the economic benefits of wearing a mask versus not wearing a mask compounded with the countless Lives that won’t become infected it seems like its at least worth a shot.

This is why a  Mask program in the United States would be extremely beneficial for not only the health of the citizens but for the economy. Having massive human life lost would have a direct correlation with the economy. Not only would it prevent a massive shut down again it would prevent another stock market crash. Covid is a major uncertainty which  is ideal for the market. If we wanna prevent another massive shutdown in our  local and national government we need to seriously consider a mask mandate.  Having such a mandate looks to be the only solution that keeps everyone healthy and business open.

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research- corinnebuck1219

Breeding for Looks, not Health.

As the American Kennel Club makes dog standards more specific, it is obvious it is being abused and taken advantage of by certain breeders. The ‘perfect’ dog their breeding may have the features people want, but the diseases and illnesses not so much. The American Kennel club sets standards that each breed should have to qualify for the dogs to be determined ‘studs’ (qualified male dog for breeding) and bitches (qualified female dog for breeding) ready for breeding, as well with the dog’s family tree. ‘Puppy face’ is a common term coined for the puppy-like features breeders breed for, what buyers want, and the standards the American Kennel Club set. These features include big bulging eyes, smushed faces, and larger than average heads. As a side effect these dogs will suffer from oddly shaped ears, wide yet flat skulls, wrinkles over the nose, excess wrinkles on the face, which ultimately results in the dogs inability to exercise, withstand heat, stress, and the dogs ability to breathe in general to decrease. The most common breeds that suffer from this norm are English Bulldogs, French Bulldogs, Pugs, and the Boston Terrier.

Breeders commonly use deliberate inbreeding, the mating of directly related family members, such as a father and his daughter, mother and son, and even brothers and sisters to allow the exact traits they keep breeding for to always occur. Despite the success rates of the traits, it comes with many side effects for the dog, which will always impact the owner. For example, the English Bulldog is commonly inbred, and as a result has to undergo artificial insemination due to the stance, squat, short legs, and hips they are bred for, which cannot support the weight of another dog. Yes, artificial insemination may open many doors for breeding like being able to use samples from dogs all over the world, and helps the spread of STD’s, but could also lead to the English Bulldog’s breed demise since they aren’t able to breed naturally on their own in most cases. In an article written by the Smithsonian magazine, they believe that English Bulldogs are dangerously unhealthy, and there may not be enough genetic diversity within the gene pool to save them. Niels Pederson, a professor of medicine and epidemiology at the University of California at the Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, says “They’ve lost so much genetic diversity over the past decades.”.

 Another example of this can be found in the Pug, where the purposely want those big adorable gumball eyes, but unfortunately this dog will have a higher chance of sustaining an eye injury, as well as have to use artificial insemination for reasons like the bulldog. Another example we can look at happens to be with the Boston Terrier breed. Due to the puppy-like big head Bostons are found to have, mothers cannot give birth naturally and will have to have C-sections since puppies cannot fit through the mothers birth canal. The Boston, or aka the American Gentleman, is sadly bred for a defromed structure with small hips and pelvis. A study conducted found that out of 675 Boston litters, 86% were found to be delivered by C-section, sadly, 9% of puppies will die at birth, and 14% of puppies will be born with defects. A different survey found that out of 108 Boston pups, only 9 will die from old age. These are horrible statistics for such a popular breed.

Another troubled breed is the French Bulldog. Despite the popularity of this newer breed, breeders have surely taken advantage of this breed. Not only are they found to have the lowest life expectancy since their median years is 1.3 years old, compared to most dogs where their average median is 4.5 years, but this breed has the majority of the records at veterinarians. Out of 300 vet clinics, 2228 Frenchies were found with records, and 72% of this breed had disorders. These disorders can be some common ones like diarrhea and ear infections, but others like wrinkle infections, corneal ulcers, and upper respiratory disorders that can be costly for the owners, stressful for the dogs, and are solely due to the improper breeding. Corneal ulcers can be from a scratch from a stick or getting bumped by another dog since their eyes are exophthalmic, meaning their eyes bulge anteriorly out of the orbit. Upper respiratory disorders can be from the shortened snout, and many face wrinkles that can result in trouble breathing. Wrinkle infections can be due to things like yeast and dirt forming between rolls causing the skin to be irritated and have bad reactions. Lindsay Hamilton said “An explosion in demand for the popular breeds has left the dogs with deformities and health problems”. Hamilton also urges to avoid buying breeds like the Frenchie and Pugs because they will suffer from very serious life long issues, due to the inability to pant, exercise, eat, or even sleep properly without snoring. Frenchies are actually banned from flying in cargo in most airlines, due to their inability to breathe normally. The Frenchie is a brachycephalic breed, meaning they are human chosen to have large heads with flat faces and narrow nostrils which makes them prone to many diseases. 

In an article written by the Boston Globe, they deem the breeding of English Bulldogs to be inhumane. They say that since this breed is prone to many birth defects, some include a flat chest, skeletal disorders that can result in hip dysplasia, how wrinkly their faces are which can result in acne and eye problems, along with their underbite with lots of drooling that can often mean lots of dental trouble, and chance of choking on objects. Along with the Boston, it is very rare for these enormous head puppies to be birthed naturally, so 90% of English Bulldog moms will undergo a C-section which can cause lots of stress on the animal, along with the ‘bitch’ to not be wanted for breeding anymore due to her body condition and the recovery she will undergo. The Smithsonian Magazine found that introducing new genes from outside of the English Bulldogs purebred genepool, would help the animals health and genetic diversity, but is shunned by breeders since this dog will no longer be ‘purebred’ and no longer pedigreed, having the full list of ancestors of proof of being purebred, which is used by the American Kennel Club. This type of breeding is called outbreeding, but like I said, breeders tend to reject introducing different genes, since they fear their breed will then “be contaminated”, and the breed would lose its character, be introduced to new diseases, and change in temperament.

A lot of people will use the market of products in dogs for an excuse why this breeding is okay. Online and in stores like Chewy, Petsmart, Petco, and even Amazon, you can find various products. Some products like doggy goggles , aka “doggles”, to protect the eyes, creams, wipes, and soaps targeted to stop wrinkles and skin infections, and all other types of remedies. Some conditions they will claim to be due to owners negligence by not doing enough research on the breed prior to adoption. I agree that research should be done for things the breeds they are prone or predisposed to, but breeders in general should also be looking for this as well. It is unacceptable that breeders are so negligent of these conditions and should be stopped before they even start, which happens to be choosing which bitch and stud to mate based on their traits and conditions. 

People also claim that these breeds are perfect for first time dog owners, full time workers, and people who live in city areas due to the fact these dogs don’t require lots of exercise and are typically low maintenance. I find this claim to be quite false because it is true to a certain extent, but it is not considered how expensive these breeds are to purchase in the first place, and when these pups experience problems, how costly these vet visits are due to surgeries and medicines can be. Out of a list of 20 most expensive breeds by, the french bulldog is listed to be the 12th most expensive dog averaging around $6000, and the Bulldog to be ranked 15th averaging around $4300. also made a list of dog breeds that experience the most expensive veterinary bills, that says the Frenchie is the 9th most expensive, and owners on average can pay $1087 per year. According to, they say the most expensive breed to own is the Bulldog, totaling $9,562 over the span of 4 years of vet bills. According to American Kennel Club’s website, the French Bulldog is ranked the 4th most popular dog in 2019, the English Bulldog number 5th, Boston Terrier is the 21st, and the Pug 31st out of 193 recorded purebred breeds. From the information I’ve provided, you can assume these dogs are some of the most popular, yet some of the most expensive to adopt, and maintain. 

The American Kennel Club and the british counterpart, The Kennel Club, have already been previously exposed for their controversial breeding in 2008. A BBC documentary, “Pedigree Dogs Exposed” surfaced and demonstrated how poorly the purebreds health and welfare was, leaving both Kennel Clubs no choice but to change the standards for certain breeds, the English Bulldog being one of them. According to the Washington Post, Pedersen noticed there were two very different sides when it comes to breeding. Animal rights activists and veterinarians who believe that English Bulldogs are so inbred and bred to meet these poor standards, will undoubtedly doom unless outbreeding was practiced. On the other hand, breeders denied any problem, and said if they’re was problems, it could be fixed by selective breeding. I find this to be counterintuitive, since selective breeding is choosing parents with certain characteristics to breed and produce offspring with the desired traits. It makes you wonder, if they think that can fix it, then how were they breeding before, and why has this already not been implemented? It’s sad to think the people who take pride in producing these breeds are so careless and totally disregard these animals’ health and wellbeing. 

To further on the documentary “Pedigree Dogs Exposed”, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Associate Parliamentary Group for Animal Welfare, and Sir Patrick Bateson concluded their studies to find that the current breeding practices are quiet detrimental to the welfare of the pedigree dogs, and said they have made many recommendations that should be implemented by the Kennel Club’s breeders to improve the pedigree dogs health. A report by the Companion Animal Welfare Council called for many major changes as well, saying that “inbreeding needs to be controlled”, and “animals with genetic defects should be barred from breed shows.” Many people have rejected these claims, especially breeders, that these are purely based on emotions rather than science. In 2004, Jeff Sampson, the Kennel Club’s geneticist, said “Unfortunately, the restrictive breeding patterns that have been developed as part and parcel of the purebred dog scene have not been without collateral damage to all breeds…” and “increasingly, inherited diseases are imposing a serious disease burden on many, if not all, breeds of dogs.”. Despite that said, he still believes the vast majority of dogs registered will live long, happy, and healthy lives. This documentary also proved that out of 10,000 Pugs in the UK, they are so inbred that their genepool is only equivalent to 50 dogs, which was found from a study conducted at the Imperial College in London. It was also found that only two breeds, the Irish Setter, and the Irish Red and White Setter, have compulsory health tests, out of more than two hundred breeds that are registered. On 38 Degrees, a website designed for people to sign petitions, there is one regarding the compulsory DNA health screening of breeding dogs. This petition states that the change of ‘advisable’ to ‘mandatory’, and the refusal of the registration of puppies, unless the parents have passed all the available DNA screening tests. Currently, this petition has 395 signatures, out of the 400 needed. 

On the website, Pedigree Dogs exposed, you can find another study that was conducted about English Bulldogs, where they found out of 24 healthy young English Bulldogs, the study from Finland concluded the prevalence of orthopaedic diseases, mainly hip dysplasia, are so common in the breed that unfortunately “no healthy individuals exist”. Out of the 24 dogs studied, only one had no signs of moderate or severe hip dysplasia, ¾ had at least one malformed vertebrae, ⅓ had luxating patellas, a condition where the patella or kneecap dislocates or moves out of normal location, and almost half had elbow dysplasia. Lead author, Anu Lappalainen said “One of the most worrying points of our study actually was that the owners of the dogs we studied, did not feel that their dogs were sick or poorly, which is alarming”.

As you can see, the pure greed and disregard breeders have about their litters is very evident. The ignorance and negligence of not only the breeders, but even the Kennel Club and the American Kennel club shows the lack of empathy they possess. They know and take advantage of the puppy-face they know we love, without considering the damage they are doing. Regardless of the science that has been proven with clinical trials, improper breeding tactics still happen. I don’t want to assume that both the Kennel Club and the American Kennel Club’s effort was all for show, but if they were serious, things would have changed by now. The practice of inbreeding animals is completely inhumane and will eventually eliminate the dogs gene pool, leading them into extinction. Gene testing should be implemented before mating, which would also eliminate the ‘backyard breeding’. Both Kennel Club’s should be enforcing these rules and not allowing dogs with dangerous genes to reproduce and further these genes, or even participate in their competition shows. When the Kennel Club’s allows ignorant breeders to do as they please, they are quite literally approving of these improper breeding practices without any repercussions. 

To conclude the Boston Terrier, English Bulldog, Pug, and the French Bulldog along with any other breeds experience this very detrimental breeding. It is unfair for dogs to go under the stress of their illnesses, and same with their owners. The breeds I listed are some of the most expensive breeds, yet with some of the most expensive vet bills. For the price you pay for an adorable companion, the owner nor dog should have to face the consequences of ignorant breeding. Not only are these dogs prone to illnesses and diseases, but also have some of the shortest dog life expectancies. Hopefully, before adopting people will do research on their breed, and breeders and inquire if the parents suffer from genetic disorders. If the Kennel Club’s continue on this path instead of stopping these practices at the source, they can cause these breeds to unfortunately become extinct due to the diminishing gene pools from inbreeding. I understand how things like this can happen, since people see a cute smushed face puppy and instantly fall in love. To stop these dogs suffering, the Kennel Club’s must change their standards for breeds, eliminate inbreeding, mandate gene testing prior to mating, allow breeders to outbreed, and punish the breeders who break these rules. It is inhumane to allow these dogs to suffer for the greed of making money, without any consideration of their future and health. 

Works cited

Eschner, Kat. “The Evolution of Petface.”, Smithsonian Institution, 31 Jan. 2018, 

Maldarelli, Claire. “Although Purebred Dogs Can Be Best in Show, Are They Worst in Health?” Scientific American, Scientific American, 21 Feb. 2014, 

Welton, Michele. “Boston Terrier Health Problems: Feeding.” Boston Terrier Health Problems | Feeding, 

David Sargan Senior Lecturer in Molecular Pathology at the Department of Veterinary Medicine. “How to Save Inbred, Short-Faced Dogs Such as Pugs and Bulldogs from Poor Health.” The Conversation, 20 July 2020, 

Brulliard, Karin. “French Bulldogs’ Cuteness Comes at a Steep Cost.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 1 Apr. 2019, 

Brownell, Matt. “10 Dogs With the Priciest Vet Bills.” TheStreet, 10 July 2011,

Brulliard, Karin. “Why Breeding Bulldogs Is Borderline Inhumane – The Boston Globe.”, The Boston Globe, 5 Aug. 2016,

Brulliard, Karin. “Why Breeding Bulldogs Is Borderline Inhumane.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 1 Apr. 2019,

“Compulsory DNA Health Screening of Breeding Dogs.” 38 Degrees,

Handwerk, Brian. “Bulldogs Are Dangerously Unhealthy, But There May Not Be Enough Diversity in Their Genes to Save Them.”, Smithsonian Institution, 29 July 2016,

Harrison, Jemima. Pedigree Dogs Exposed – The Blog, 1 Jan. 1970,

McIntyre, Matt. “The 20 Most Expensive Dogs in the World.” Wealthy Gorilla, 22 June 2020,

Tamplin, Harley. “Why You Shouldn’t Buy French Bulldogs or Pugs as a Christmas Present.” Metro,, 6 Dec. 2017, 

Foden, Simon. “Dog Traits That Are Detrimental.” Pets, 21 Nov. 2017, 

“The Pros and Cons of Artificial Insemination.” DogsLife, 9 Sept. 2015, 

Staff, AKC. “The Most Popular Dog Breeds of 2019.” American Kennel Club, American Kennel Club, 1 May 2020, 
Staff, AKC. “Hip Dysplasia In Dogs: Prevention, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment.” American Kennel Club, American Kennel Club, 7 Feb. 2020,

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