White Paper- Thecommoncase

Working Hypothesis

The legalization of medical marijuana in the United States could stop the opioid crisis in its tracks by lowering the number of innocent people killed due to overdose by replacing prescription opioids in the pharmaceutical industry with medical cannabis altogether and using it to aid struggling addicts in a safe environment.

The legalization of medical marijuana in the United States could stop the opioid crisis in its tracks by lowering the number of innocent people killed due to overdose by gradually replacing prescription opioids with medical cannabis and using it as a harm reduction strategy for opioid dependents.

Purposeful Summaries

A Scoping Review of the Use of Cannabis and Its Extracts as Potential Harm Reduction Strategies: Insights from Preclinical and Clinical Research

It may seem counterintuitive to give hospital patients an illegal substance, but marijuana has shown to be quite effective in helping people with physical ailments. Marijuana’s ability to stimulate appetite has been beneficial to patients struggling with cancer-related anorexia or AIDS. It has also shown efficacy in decreasing inflammation for patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Doctors and researchers are pushing to make marijuana as a harm reduction strategy more common. For someone struggling with drug addiction, it is extremely difficult to stop cold turkey. By using marijuana as a harm reduction, an addict will receive medicinal marijuana to soothe the grueling process of substance withdrawal. This method has been used before with methadone as the harm reduction, and heroin. Methadone would decrease severe withdrawal symptoms in people with a heroin addiction.

Marijuana as a HRS has been used to treat patients who have an opioid dependency and neuropathic pain. In an experiment using animal models, marijuana positively intervened in opioid withdrawal and even relapse.

There have already been cases where medicinal marijuana as a HRS has been used on actual patients, as well. Depending on the state, and if a doctor prescribes it, medicinal cannabis can be distributed to patients in the United States. But unfortunately, since marijuana is classified as a Schedule I drug, it is difficult for researchers to obtain access to the drug to test its capabilities as a harm reduction drug.

Source Cited

Siklos-Whillans, J., Bacchus, A. & Manwell, L.A. A Scoping Review of the Use of Cannabis and Its Extracts as Potential Harm Reduction Strategies: Insights from Preclinical and Clinical Research. Int J Ment Health Addiction (2020). https://doi-org.ezproxy.rowan.edu/10.1007/s11469-020-00244-w

A safer alternative: Cannabis substitution as harm reduction. 

In order to help people who are addicted to drugs, substitution and harm reduction strategies are being used. With substitution, a patient is given an alternative drug that is less addictive than the one they are currently abusing. Substitution is a common method used in harm reduction strategies, since some addicts do not see full sobriety as a realistic goal.

For many years marijuana has been called a “gateway drug,” suggesting that it leads to other, more harmful substances like opioids, cocaine, and heroin. But the use of marijuana as a harm reduction strategy says otherwise. The substitution of a substance with cannabis has shown to be an effective way to wean addicts of their harmful drug. In a study conducted on Jaimaican women who were addicted to crack, marijuana was used to lessen the amount of crack smoked. The researchers found that cannabis was the most effective and accessible drug used as a substitution for crack smoking. In studies involving alcohol abusers, they claimed that it lessened the effects of cravings and withdrawal. Marijuana was able to relax the participants and help with restless sleep and pain relief.

Marijuana is becoming a popular drug to use as a substitute for various types of people who are dependent on drugs. Patients at a cannabis dispensary in California claimed to use marijuana as a substitute for drugs like prescription pills and alcohol.

Source Cited

Lau, N., Sales, P., Averill, S., Murphy, F., Sato, S., & Murphy, S. (2015). A safer alternative: Cannabis substitution as harm reduction. Drug & Alcohol Review, 34(6), 654–659.

Medical Marijuana for Treatment of Chronic Pain and Other Medical and Psychiatric Problems

The use of marijuana as a medical treatment is still new ground for the United States, and people are still wary of its popularity, since it is still considered to be a Schedule I type drug. The legalization of marijuana has caused an overall increase in marijuana use, and doctors would like to conduct more research on the potential medical uses of cannabis. 

At the moment, only two cannabinoid types are approved by the FDA. These treatments are used alongside chemotherapy for cancer patients dealing with nausea or to stimulate appetite. But high quality clinical trials have yielded positive results, and suggest that medical marijuana can help with more than just anorexia and nausea.

Next to using medical cannabis for cancer patients, the next most common use for medical marijuana is for chronic or neuropathic pain. Out of 12 trials, there were multiple positive results that encouraged the use of medical marijuana for chronic and neuropathic pain. In an article published by the American Academy of Neurology, a list of guidelines for medical marijuana use claimed that the most effective results are found when the cannabis is taken orally, like in a pill form.

But since cannabis is still not completely federally approved, it cannot be distributed through pharmacies, and is not readily available to those who need it. FDA approved medical cannabinoids can be prescribed, but are not available for things like chronic pain. With more research being conducted, more positive results are showing, which could change the current FDA standings on medical cannabis.

Source Cited

Hill KP. Medical Marijuana for Treatment of Chronic Pain and Other Medical and Psychiatric Problems: A Clinical Review. JAMA. 2015;313(24):2474–2483. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.6199

Mental health functioning and severity of cannabis withdrawal among medical cannabis users with chronic pain 

At a medical marijuana dispensary in Michigan, a study was conducted on people who use medical marijuana for chronic pain. A majority of the participants in the study use cannabis at least once a week, and claim that they do experience withdrawal symptoms.

In the study, more than seventy-five percent of the participants stated that they would have trouble sleeping, lose their appetite, or become anxious when they were not using medical cannabis. The severity of withdrawal symptoms correlates with how high functioning a person’s brain is, but continuous heavy cannabis use can deter the functions of the brain.

Although, since the participants were also dealing with chronic pain, that could also play a role in the severity of withdrawal symptoms. If a person’s chronic pain is intense, then it makes sense that patients would be taking larger amounts of cannabis. Marijuana withdrawal can lead to functional impairments, but does not have a large physical effect. Chronic pain causes both functional and physical impairments, making it difficult for a person to stop taking their cannabis medication.

Source Cited

Brian E. Perron, Katlyn R. Holt, Emily Yeagley, Mark Ilgen, Mental health functioning and severity of cannabis withdrawal among medical cannabis users with chronic pain,  Available online 6 November 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.09.029. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376871618307786

Topic for Definition Argument: “Harm Reduction”

Topic for Causal Argument: Cessation of drug use causes withdrawal.

Topic for Rebuttal Argument: The use of drugs as treatment against another drug will just make that person addicted to a different drug.

Current State of Research Paper

At the moment, I can say that I am feeling more level-headed about this paper the more I work on it. Once the professor told me about harm reduction, it made me feel as though I could actually make this paper make sense. But I am still feeling a bit anxious about putting all of my information together. Getting rid of opioids altogether does not seem achievable in the slightest, so I will have to change my hypothesis once again. But overall, the research I am finding makes me confident that at least half of my idea is not completely ridiculous.

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White Paper—Christianity19

  1. Young, L., Motz, V., Markey, E., Young, S., & Beaschler, R. (2017). Recommendations for Best Disinfectant Practices to Reduce the Spread of Infection via Wrestling Mats. Journal of Athletic Training52(2), 82–88. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-52.1.02


  • Young, L., Motz, V., Markey, E., Young, S., & Beasc
  • 2017
  • Recommendations for Best Disinfectant Practices to Reduce the Spread of Infection via Wrestling Mats
  • Journal of Athletic Training

This article is recommendations for the best ways to prevent wrestling infections on the mat. Also, it’s about they need to check and examine the wrestlers before they start a wrestling dual or a wrestling tournament with the school or wrestling club practice. Even preventing skin diseases in wrestling will radically reduce other wrestlers from getting skin diseases.

2. Anderson, B. (2012). Effectiveness of Body Wipes as an Adjunct to Reducing Skin Infections in High School Wrestlers. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine22(5), 424–429. https://doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0b013e3182592439


  • Anderson, B.
  • Effectiveness of Body Wipes as an Adjunct to Reducing Skin Infections in High School Wrestlers
  • Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine
  • 2012


This article is about how effective body wipes can be to high school wrestlers to reduce skin infections before wrestling and after wrestling. Most wrestling diseases are from leg to leg contact or arm to arm contact and body wipes can help solve this problem. Also, it’s about a test they did with multiple wrestlers and how baby wipes helped them prevent skin disease.

3. Mallmann, W. L. (1924). HYGIENE OF WRESTLING MATS. American Journal of Public Health14(7), 569-570.


  • Mallmann, W. L
  • 1924
  • American Journal of Public Health


This article is how to make sure the wrestling mats are taken care for so that you can prevent skin diseases while wrestling. Also, this article is that you need to maintain the mats like for example you need to wash it down after every single wrestling practice or wrestling match because you may not know what skin conditions people may have. Getting the mat cleaned after wrestling matches and practice will reduce the ability to get skin diseases.

4. Silverman, R. A. (2000). Office-based treatment of pediatric skin disease. Pediatric Clinics of North America47(4), 859-865.


  • Silverman, R. A.
  • 2000
  • Office-based treatment of pediatric skin disease
  • Pediatric Clinics of North America


This article is how to treat pediatric skin disease from wrestling practice or from wrestling matches. Also, the article is that skin diseases are treatable from wrestling you just need to go and see you dermatologist to get medicine for the skin disease. Even the skin disease is way into the tissue of your skin so its hard to get treated especially if you’ve been wrestling like every single day.

5. Skin Conditions in Wrestlers. (2011). In Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine.


  • Skin Conditions in Wrestlers
  • 2011
  • Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine

This article is about different skin infections you may have from wrestling every single day. Also, this article talks about the different skin diseases and the side effects of having these types of skin diseases from wrestling. Even its about how to stay safe from these different types of skin diseases that you may come across on day when wrestling. Lastly, not every single wrestler will get skin diseases from wrestling; but you just need to learn to take care of your skin and take a shower after wrestling.

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White Paper—Icedcoffeeislife

  • Biliography:
    • J.S. Raglin, W.P. Morgan, P.J. Conner
    • Behavioral Sciences
    • Changes in Mood States during Training in Female and Male College Swimmers
    • 1991
  • Summary:

This study tested the changes in moods during physical training for collegiate swimmers, both across genders and gender specific. Although moderate exercise has supported mental health benefits, the same is not true for higher intensity training, such as that often practiced by swimmers and track athletes. Additionally, it is unknown the effects of this training on other mood states such as anger, vigor, and fatigue. Raglan’s purpose in this experiment is to determine how when training is reduced, what happens with mood disturbances.

Varsity swimmers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison’s men’s and women’s teams all completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS), every 3 to 4 weeks throughout the training season. The men and women’s teams both completed similar workouts in order to keep constant the data POMS’ collected. For the beginning of the season, the teams started swimming around 3,000 meters a day and increased to a peak of 13,000 meters a day, and then back again to 3,500 meters a day towards the end of the season. After analysis, it was found that “total mood, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, and confusion changed in accordance with the training schedule for each of the seasons,” (pg. 2). For both females and males, as distance increased so did mood disturbance, however the “magnitude of the change differed among the mood factors,” (pg. 3). The only factor to not show change across the season was tension, as it remained constant throughout, and more elevated for females than males. Therefore, the results of this study concluded the following. During physical training during the season, swimmers of all genders experience similar mood state changes, and the data supports a correlation between these changes and the training volume, or distance swam for this sport. Lastly, tension is higher in females both before and during and throughout exercise, and is the only mood that remains the same no matter the magnitude of distance covered.

  • Summary:

This study tested different combinations of training exercises in three different groups in order to determine the effects on anxiety and depression after an 8-week conditioning program. Typical for college students, school related stress and lack of sleep are both leading lifestyle attributes that can lead to anxiety and depression. In turn, this may lead to drug abuse and skipping classes. However, despite readily accessible help on campus, “Substantial proportions of mentally ill students do not obtain treatment,” because of potentially having to face difficult personal problems (paragraph 3). Cai argues that by implementing relaxation exercises, such as yoga, tai chi chuan, and guided imagery, into physical education, there will be immense mental benefits. Tai Chi Chuan “is a physical and mental exercise characterized by slow, gentle and graceful movements that come from a continuous glow from one’s mind,” (paragraph 9). Therefore, Cai’s experiment’s purpose is to test the effects of mindfulness exercises on anxiety and depression relief.

71 college students were divided into four classes, two of which implementing guided imagery and integration respectively in conjunction with self-defense, and the third and forth solely with self-defense. During the last 15 minutes of the classes of the first two classes, students practiced their mindfulness exercises, while the other two continued their physical activity. The results of the study after 8 weeks indicated that the imagery and tai chi chuan groups had lower anxiety scores than the control groups, supporting his idea that these practices ease mental illness. However, after just one week there were no real benefits. Therefore, these valuable practices should not be ignored as practical ways to tackle college mental illness through physical education classes.

  • Bibliography:
    • Rosalyn Stoa, Jana Fogaça, and Logan Johnsen
    • Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics
    • Feel the Pressure: Stress and Intrinsic Motivation in Collegiate Swimmers
    • 2020
  • Summary:

The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a correlation between stress and motivation in college level swim athletes. As a college athlete, motivation is a driving factor in wanting to compete at such a high level. However, as the stakes increase this motivation has the potential to turn into pressure and stress. Academic stress is an additional factor that student athletes must handle on top of their athletic lives. Although some argue that athletes are better equipped to deal with the mental struggles of stress, others disagree, as they may not want to use the resources that they have. Before the experiment, the following were hypothesized. First, changes in internal motivation can predict the same stress throughout the season. Second, Stress will peak just before winter break, and third, the relationship with the coach is a factor in motivation and stress during the peak of the swimming season.

163 people initially enrolled in the study, but only 108 of those were able to be included in the analyzing as they completed the necessary data collection tests. The tests were administered five times, and each contained a section with demographic material, a motivation scale, and a stress scale. After the season concluded, analysis did not support that motivation could predict stress levels, which was the first hypothesis. The second hypothesis was somewhat supported as “intrinsic motivation changed over the season in a quadratic manner, hitting its lowest point where stress was also at its highest,” (284). Although this study did not support the hypotheses, it does lend itself to the importance of continuing to use psychology and different techniques to help athletes and “prevent burnout and increase motivation when needed,” and often overlooked topic among sports (286).

  • Bibliography:
    • Herbert Simons, Derek Van Rheenen, and Martin Covington,
    • Journal of College Students Development
    • Academic Motivation and the Student Athlete
    • April 1999
  • Link:
  • https://www.shrunken.com/a8tzT
  • Summary:

It seems with student athletes they have to find a balance between their academic studies and training schedule. These can add on extra pressure for athletes to find the perfect balances for their work. According to Herbert Simons, Derek Van Rheenen, and Martin Covington, in their article called “ Academic Motivation and the Student Athletes”, they talked about how stress from training and school can affect a students motivation to do their work. They conducted a study to see how student athletes deal with the pressure of their school work and training, and if there are any methods that they can do to improve there in academics and in their training.  This study was done over the course of the school year from 1993 to 1994, student athletes at Un etsy of California, Berkeley were used to complete the study. They were given a survey to fill out at teams meetings that were based on their attire towards academics and athletics. At the end of the study, it was found that student-athletes that are success-orientated are more likely to die better academics than student-athletes that focus more on their athletics than their academics.

It seems that with the added pressure of being a college athlete can lead to anxiety or depression in an athlete. With this added pressure it can lead to bad performance in a training or a competition, while also having a negative effect on an athlete’s  academic studies. According to Stephen J. Page, a sports psychologist who did a study on the “Effects of Imagery on Female college Swimmers’ Perceptions of Anxiety”. With this study he was able to form an understanding on how to help deal with anxiety. In Swimming it is an individual sport that will lead to a higher chance of precomptions anxiety, whereas with team sports that anxiety of computing is not as high. This is due to the idea that you are coming as a team, where swimming is realized off of the success that you have in the pool. Stephen J. Page, did a study of imagery that would help athletes deal with there anxiety, it was a year long study, where athletes took a baseline test on there anxiety when i comes to their sport, then after using imagery for over the course of the year, they took another test to see if there anxiety decrease or stayed the same. The result of the study showed that athlecs anxiety decreased but there was no way that this anxiety would be taken away onces the study was complete. 

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White Paper—person345


Travel Restrictions due to the Coronavirus Pandemic contribute to the negative effects that inflict the human mind because of people’s inability to enjoy themselves.


Ozdemir, M. (2020). (PDF) the novel Coronavirus Covid-19 crisis on Incoming … Retrieved February 22, 2021, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/346937451_The_Novel_Coronavirus_Covid-19_Crisis_on_Incoming_Travel_Agencies_Current_Situation_and_Post-pandemic_Scenarios

The COVID-19 pandemic has drastic effects on travel. In March of 2020 alone, 90% of the population faced lock downs from the stay-at-home orders and travel bans that were being issued. Also, international flights in 2020 are estimated to fall by 20% to 30% because of the pandemic. A study was conducted on the impacts of the Chinese tourism Industry which stated that foreigners that anticipating on traveling to China cancelled their reservations. Airlines also stopped most international flights to stop the spread of the virus. Many countries are also in the same situation as China. Their tourism industries are failing because people are not able to fly internationally. As a result, flying and tourism in general are collapsing.

JM;, T. (2020). Working in a pandemic: Exploring the impact of covid-19 health anxiety on work, family, and health outcomes. Retrieved February 22, 2021, from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32969707/

It seems that the Coronavirus Pandemic is causing people such as employees to have anxiety about contracting the virus. COVID-19 Health Anxiety or otherwise known as CovH is this fear of contracting COVID-19. A study conducted about CovH yields results about the effects of staying quarantined and isolated. When someone has anxiety, it triggers what is known as the fight or flight response in which the brain can either face the cause of anxiety head on, or it can stimulate a flight response. This makes someone feel that they cannot escape the situation that they are in. In this instance, it is the Coronavirus. The fear of contracting COVID-19 is triggering a flight response due to the uncertainties of how long the virus will last. Emotion Suppression is a way that people can cope with the anxiety. This makes a seemingly never-ending situation more manageable.

Seppo, E. (1983). Towards a social psychology of recreational travel. Retrieved February 23, 2021, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248996852_Towards_a_social_psychology_of_recreational_travel

Any form of travel or a vacation has effects on the human mind. People see traveling as a reward and or an escape from their daily living routines. Going on a vacation is an Intrinsic Activity meaning that it is motivated by internal feelings and satisfaction.

Chen, C. (2013). Health and wellness benefits of travel experiences a literature Review. Retrieved February 23, 2021, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258161384_Health_and_Wellness_Benefits_of_Travel_Experiences_A_Literature_Review

Traveling has many health and wellness benefits. When someone goes on a vacation for pleasure, they are satisfied because it gives people a chance to escape the stresses of their lives. Going on a vacation can also improve mental health and a chance at a better lifestyle because of the time to yourself. A study conducted proves this. When someone goes on a vacation, they go through four stages of satisfaction: The Anticipation Stage (Before Vacation), Experience Stage (During Vacation), The Beneficial Stage (During and After Vacation), and the Fade Out Stage. When a person is anticipating a getaway, their satisfaction starts to improve because of the excitement. In the Beneficial Stage, one’s satisfaction is at its highest point because that is the point where they are most happy. Following this, satisfaction starts to go down at the Fade Out Stage because their happiness derived from their vacation is starting to decrease. Therefore, going on vacations for just a few days improves one’s lifestyle.

Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce … Retrieved February 24, 2021, from https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30460-8/fulltext

Since the Coronavirus outbreak started in December 2019, there has been evidence showing that it can have negative psychological effects on people. These included signs of PTSD and confusion all coming from boredom, uncertainty, and financial loss. Studies have been conducted to prove this. One study showed that hospital staff had signs of acute stress after nine days of quarantine. Also, the hospital staff reported signs of loneliness, anxiety, insomnia, and irritability following their time in quarantine. This proves that being socially separated is dangerous to the human mind as it can bring upon signs of mental disorders. Us, as humans are heavily reliant on social activity to thrive. With our social lives taken away from us, it is evident that being quarantined is unhealthy for the human mind.

Current State of Research Paper

My research has led me to some interesting sources about benefits of vacation, consequences of travel restrictions because of etc. However, when I was conducting my research, I was having trouble finding relevant sources that I can use in my paper. When Professor Hodges gave me key words that I can search in Google Scholar, that helped in finding more sources. Now, I am pretty confident about proving my hypothesis.

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White Paper—Justheretopass

Becker, S. P., & Gregory, A. M. (2020). Editorial Perspective: Perils and promise for child and adolescent sleep and associated psychopathology during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 61(7), 757-759. doi:10.1111/jcpp.13278

Covid-19 could have negative impacts on children and adolescents in the sleep aspect. Due to covid-19 more children have been forced to isolate and stay to themselves to not catch this deadly virus. Doing that though could lead to growth in weight and that can have a negative effect on your health and sleep as time goes on. The stress of all this with family situations can also have a negative effect on children and adolescents in the sleep aspects. Since most people are inside regularly that can make for an inconsistent sleep schedule and wake up time, making daytime naps more regular and longer. Remote learning also increases the time spent in their beds or bedrooms making it easier for them to fall asleep or not pay attention. Remote learning also comprises the in person interactions that children and adolescents need as they are developing in this world. With the added time being on technology the children and adolescents are exposed to “blue light” which disrupts melatonin which is basically your body’s cue that you’re tired and it’s time to sleep. Meaning that the children and adolescents miss value time to sleep and let their bodies rest. 

Horita, R., Nishio, A., & Yamamoto, M. (2020, November 07). The effect of remote learning on the mental health of first year university students in Japan. Retrieved February 23, 2021, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165178120332224

This article talks about the effects of Covid-19 first year Japanese students’ mental health by comparing the surveys with the previous year. The studies have shown that the depression levels were lower with the first year students as compared to the previous students. The studies did show that the first year students experienced high academic distress since they had to adapt to an unfamiliar e-learning environment. The university measured depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, eating concerns, hostility, family distress, academic distress and substance use. Studies showed that 2020 students feel unconnected with the outside world due to the fact that they had to stay home for months and work from home and couldn’t leave.

Kecojevic, A., Basch, C. H., Sullivan, M., & Davi, N. K. (2020, September 30). The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on mental health of undergraduate students in New Jersey, cross-sectional study. Retrieved February 23, 2021, from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0239696

This article was trying to see how Covid-19 has impacted college students from Northern Jersey. They ran tests to assess the increased levels of mental health such as depression, anxiety and stress. They collected surveys on knowledge levels, behavior changes, academic and everyday struggles and measured their mental health. The results showed that students had a good understanding of Covid-19 and what they should be doing to try and keep themselves safe. The studies also showed that there was a high level of depression associated with the difficulties of being able to focus on school work and maintaining a job and steady income. There were also high levels of somatization which is when psychological concerns are converted into physical symptoms. The results also showed that those with a high level of stress were prodomenity females unable to focus on academic work. Covid-19 has taken a huge toll on college students having to be able to study and learn challenging topics and staying calm and safe from the virus is having a negative impact on all students especially their mental state. 

Rotas, E., & Cahapay, M. (2020, December 1). Difficulties in Remote Learning: Voices of Philippine University Students in the Wake of COVID-19 Crisis. Retrieved February 23, 2021, from http://www.asianjde.org/ojs/index.php/AsianJDE/article/view/504

This article talks about the difficulties of remote learning and how it was challenging for the students. They talked about how they sometimes have unstable internet connection, uncertain learning contents, overload lessons in activities, unable to talk to your peers and have the adequate one on one time with your professor about a topic. On a global scale UNICEF reported that more than 1.5 billion learners of all ages are affected because of the closure of schools and universities. 32% and 22% out of 3,670 Filipino medical students surveyed have difficulty adjusting to a new learning style. 

Waters, L., Algoe, S., Dutton, J., Emmons, R., Fredrickson, B., Heaphy, E., . . . Steger, M. (2021, February 09). Positive psychology in a pandemic: Buffering, bolstering, and building mental health. Retrieved February 23, 2021, from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17439760.2021.1871945

This article talks about nine topics in positive psychology that support people: meaning, coping, self-compassion, courage, gratitude, character strengths, positive emotion, positive interpersonal processes and high quality connections. Researchers Rusk and Waters found that suffering was a common feature in positive psychology because individuals recover and rebuild from adversity (mental toughness, resilience, compassion). An example was after the September 11 terrorist attacks in the USA instead of growing apart everyone became resilient and worked together. When Covid-19 hit an increase of anxiety and depression came about and happiness and life satisfaction was still present. Some positive reactions increased, people were able to focus on their family, feeling blessed for what they have and to be alive. There are three types of interactions: buffering, bolstering and building. The buffering is when positive emotions, and/or relationships serve to diminish or starve off psychological ill health during a crisis. Bolstering effect of positive psychology is when positive emotion, and/or relationships act to maintain mental health despite being in a crisis. The building effect emerges when the individual is able to use the crisis in a transformative way to develop new practices and new outlooks that can lead to improvement on the person’s mental health in the future. During the SARS outbreak it was shown that people were taking great care of their family members, giving friends more support and a spiritual growth and higher level of appreciation for life. Meaning plays an important role in coping with stress and trauma including greater use of effective coping strategies such as avoiding emotional suppression. Despite spikes in stress, anxiety and depression for frontline healthcare workers there was 61% of them that found increased meaning and purpose for their life. Coping can be boasted by a positive psychological intervention. Moskowitz conducted an experiment with people diagnosed with HIV, metastatic breast cancer and dementia caregiving. Wanted to demonstrate positive effects and meaning and purpose. Self compassion involves treating yourself with the same kindness and care you would show a good friend. Self compassion buffers the negative effects of suffering, meaning people who are compassionate towards themselves are less likely to be anxious and depressed. Courage or to take a risk toward your goal. You never know when things could be taken away from you. Gratitude the affirmation and recognition of benefits received. Gratitude lowers stress levels and increases positive emotions, life satisfaction and resilience. Character strengths may bolster mental health by helping one identify and use their best qualities and strengths in new ways. May also help a person see adversity in a positive and not always a negative way. Positive emotions include joy, hope, pride. High quality connections can help people remove distractions from their life and just focus on the interaction they are having. Positive interpersonal processes is also a positive psychology trait but not pertaining to my topic.  

Iwai, Yoshiko. “Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic.” Scientific American Blog Network, Scientific American, 13 Mar. 2020, blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/online-learning-during-the-covid-19-pandemic/. 

The article opens up about how the author woke up late for class and even though she was late to her class she turned off her video, became distracted with her outside surrounding like texting on her computer, making coffee and running to the bathroom. The author said she knew this wasn’t a unique experience and wondered how many other people would be going through it. She finds herself obsessing over her family in Japan especially her mother whose lung cancer puts her at a high risk. She then talks about how some professors weren’t able to navigate zoom or had technical difficulties resulting in the cancelation of class. Some classes are easier to teach like biochemistry as compared to a dance class. She then talks about the difficulties of being able to participate in the zoom class. Being on mute doesn’t allow you for a quick response and raising your hands may be unnoticed.

Tucker, Kristine. “Synonym.” Classroom.synonym.com, 2017, classroom.synonym.com/. 

This article talks about how online class and taking a class on campus is similar and differ. They opened up talking about textbooks and how both types of students have the same textbook the only difference is if the teacher in using hands on resources inn the classroom that an online students wouldn’t have. Both learning types depend on the teacher instructions, but online school is hard because some teachers will have their lectures prerecorded which will make it hard for students to ask questions if they are confused rather than if the students in person they would be able to stop the teacher at any time they were confused and ask questions. Both types of learning will have formal assessments and quizzes but online students have the option of using the internet and outside resources to help them in what ever they are doing. In person students don’t have that luxury due to the teacher being in the room looking around for students who are cheating.

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White Paper—carsonwentz1186

Salary Cap Management


Managing salary caps is one of the most difficult things to do in the world of sports. The salary cap is designed in a way to make sure teams continue to spend money while not overpaying and sending their franchises into bankruptcy by placing a limit on how much teams can spend. Many people in the public like to believe that managing the millions of dollars franchises pull in, being able to pay players should be no problem, but that is a common misconception.

When trying to figure out whether or not spending money a player is worth it or not, that is one of the hardest things to do. This tends to be difficult because you are trying to project whether an investment will be worth it years down and the line and if its worth it to put on your payroll and cost you in the salary cap area. The general concept used to manage salary cap is accrual accounting.

Accrual accounting is an accounting method that records revenues and expenses when they are incurred whether or not cash is exchanged or not. Signing bonuses create the most problems when dealing with the salary cap. For example, if a player signs a 3 year deal with a $9 million signing bonus, the bonus will be split into 3 years and charged to the salary cap that way.

The NFL happens to be completely different however. Every player selected in the first round receives a fully guaranteed contract. What this means is no matter what happens whether it be injury or very early retirement, the player will get the full value of the contract. This is different from every other league as most player contracts in the athletic world tend to protect the team from the presented issues above, however the NFL player contracts do not allow the teams to do this and the players will always receive the money they signed on the contract.

All in all, NFL contracts are both simple and complex. The importance of understanding the concept of a salary cap in any league cannot be understated or teams would run into lots of trouble financially if they do not adhere to the policies instituted by the league.

Ben and Jerry’s strategy for salary management


It is a common belief that being a chief executive entitles you to receiving great individual pay. In many cases this is true and critics have argued the setting of CEO pay creates rifts among the workers who work under the CEO. Inflation is big issue in the US when it comes to worker salaries. According to a survey from Pearl Meyer & Partners, the average chief executive earned $10 million in total compensation which was a 13 percent increase over 2003. The average American worker earned about $27,485 in 2004 which was just 2.2 percent higher than the year before.

Many experts have argued that CEOs bring much more to the table other than their skills. They are a part of a ‘privileged class’ that other everyday workers are not because they are the “star and face of the company”. Chuck Pappalardo, the managing director of the firm Trilogy Venture, states “Not everyone is capable of running a truly global company. Companies pay them for giving over their entire lives to the company. They make a lot of money, but you have to compare what it takes to do it.”

Experts say that part of the problem pertaining to executive compensation packages is how they are determined. Every company has a compensation committee, which is composed of peer executives from other corporations. The reason why this is seen as a counterintuitive issue is these other executives have an incentive to see a compensation increase because it would result in their own salaries being increased.

Bill Strahan, a senior consultant of Philadelphia-based Mercer Human Resources Consulting, believes “Executives are not the the enemy. Finding people who are both willing and capable to do what it takes is difficulty.” It is also believed that the talent pool for jobs has grown in recent years in an attempt to include more managers with the skills to run companies. A likely reason for this would be if there were more supply and less demand for people with the executive skillset, there would be a decrease in compensation.

Ben and Jerry’s had a rule during the early 80s that no employee could make more than 5 times what the lowest paid worker was paid. This plan resulted in CEO pay being capped at $81,000. It is believed that the nature and risks CEOs have to manage, this results in the disproportional impact on the business and community and is a justifiable reason for this lob-sided pay.

Taking less money and its effect in sports


For years, former New England Patriots Quarterback Tom Brady, took less money when it came to contract negotiations to help the team stay competitive around the league. Money has always been a big problem in the NFL when it came to roster construction because it cost lots of money to pay every player on the roster. The method used by Brady resulted in one of the most historic dynasties in all of American sports.

The best and highest paid players in the NFL rarely see the end of a contract. When it came to Brady and the Patriots, they frequently adjusted his deals to lower his base salary and used the extra money created by the use of this method to address other roster needs while Brady just received more money up front. When projecting out the money that Tom Brady could have made throughout his career, he could have been one of the richest men in sports at a very early point in his career due to the many accolades he received in his early years.

If Brady received a new contract every 4 years starting in 2005, using the biggest QB contracts from that season, it would have cost the Patriots in the range of $400 million which would have seriously prohibited any serious roster rebuilding via the draft and free agency. Using the contract of Matthew Stafford in 2017, Brady at that point in his career being 40, he gave up close to $80 million in an effort to aid his team in their cap management and roster construction.

Effect of good cap management in sports


The Seattle Seahawks of 2013 were one of the most dominant teams in NFL history. Many people associate this success with the great players and their performance on the field. While it has a great deal to do with that, it is really a triumph of cap management. The star Quarterback and Cornerback of that team were both playing under rookie contracts that did not pay much money to them individually, which resulted in the team having lots of cap flexibility allowing them to sign and keep more key players to the team such as the two best free agents in the league that season and their big play receiver to a big contract.

The NFL’s salary cap has been finely tuned over the last few decade to maximize competitive balance among teams instead of allowing certain teams to run roughshod over the rest of the league. The chart shown depicts teams as red dots determining whether they were getting enough bank for their buck and not surprisingly, the top two teams in the league in terms of player production under their salary caps were the two best teams in the league and played in the Super Bowl that season. The best way to beat the cap is player evaluation and drafting, however another possible method is through intelligent accounting.

The 2013 Detroit Lions were one of the most weighed down teams as a result of several massive contracts they had to pay out. In order to find a solution to this problem, they used very smart accounting strategies. The best methods to use with the accounting strategy are prorated bonuses, restructuring, incentives, and cap carryover. Roster bonuses are given up front so they are not charged directly to the cap, restructuring is used to spread money out if needed for cap relief, incentives are almost like little challenges players can meet in order to earn extra money, and carryover is simply using the leftover money from the season before to combine with the cap for the following season. The use of these methods allow for cap flexibility and are used by teams to help keep them competitive with the better player evaluation teams in the league.

Quarterback Contracts and effects on long term salary cap


Quarterbacks are one of the most important positions in all of sports, if not the most important. As a result of their importance, their salaries have undergone serious inflation over the past 2 decades. Regardless of their importance to their teams, there has been a common point made that these utterly massive contracts being doled out to Quarterbacks have a serious effect on their team and their ability to keep a good roster around them.

Kansas City Chiefs Quarterback Patrick Mahomes is the most recent absurd contract signed by Quarterback in the NFL. The Chiefs over the years were able to develop their roster using bridge QBs such as Alex Smith who was a placeholder until the Chiefs found their guy in Mahomes. The result of this roster building was a record shattering team in terms of offensive production with the abundance of talent they had accrued over the years of rebuilding. While Mahomes was on his rookie deal and the talent around him being tied down, the Chiefs were able to hoist the Lombardi Trophy in a matter of 2 years after Mahomes was drafted. Mahomes was on his rookie deal then only earning $4.6 million in that season, but with his new $500 million contract dollar contract it may signficantly hinder the Chiefs ability to win another Super Bowl.

Over the last nine years of the new NFL CBA, many QBs have helped their teams reach the big game. The common denominator of those players: many of them have been on their rookie contracts. With those Quarterbacks making less money than they would be making post extension, it allowed for their teams to have more flexibility to spend money on other positions on the roster, bettering their teams and their chances at the championship.

One thing that remains consistent in relation to QBs and their teams salary caps is that there is a common percentage that many seem to take up of that salary cap. Since the new CBA in 2011, many QBs maxed out at around 15% in regards to how much of the salary cap they took up for their teams. There have only been 12 instances in which a QBs salary cap hit exceeded 15%, however it has been happening more and more recently as the market for the position resets itself year after year. The reason for this common percentage of the cap being taken by QBs is that as contracts have skyrocketed, so has the salary cap. The salary cap has increased by $68.2 million since 2011 and has led to contracts inflating quickly.

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the salary cap may continue to drop, resulting in the percentage of cap being taken by QBs increasing seemingly tenfold. In regards to Mahomes’s contract specifically, the Chiefs have pushed the big years of cap hits out until the 2023 season. Until then, we will wait and see if the most recent massive QB contract will effect the Chiefs in the long run as the salary cap fluctuates in value.

The idea of QBs on high salaries is that if the player can make up the financial disadvantage with their play, then no contract can be too much. Even the half a billion dollar contract being paid to Patrick Mahomes.

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Hypothesis Proved?

Follow that? If ants truly gauge the distance they’ve traveled from the nest (and therefore the distance back to the nest) by counting their steps, then returning to the nest with longer legs means they would travel farther with each step, and hence . . . find themselves WAY past the nest by the time they stopped counting.

Just an example of how innovative thinking can result in a clever way to prove a hypothesis.


What evidence led the scientists to hypothesize that ants might be counting their steps? What observed behavior might indicate that was the case? Can you draw me a map of a nest and its surroundings that would demonstrate what the evidence might look like?

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PTSD Claims- CompIIstudent

“But here we’ve got lasagna, and salad with an array of dressing choices, and a store bought Bundt cake with chocolate chips in it!”

-This is a factual claim, as there is no way to dispute whether this is true or not, really because only the people present would know.

“There is no dining room table- when they bought the house years ago, they thought they’d finish it up real nice like they did with another house, before the war, but nobody’s up for that now.”

-This is an evaluative claim, as the speaker is evaluating why the family hasn’t finished the room, inferring its due to the husband going to war.

“And it’s lovely.”

-This is a casual claim, as the speaker is just referencing how nice it is to have a fun dinner with their close family.

“Caleb is in such a good mood that Brannan asks if he’s up for putting Katie to bed so she can go lie down. Forty five minutes later he wakes her up screaming.”

-This is a causal claim, describing how a victim oof PTSD can be so calm and happy and then become paranoid in an instant.

“Not two days after that he tells her he’s leaving her.”

-This is a factual caim, as there’s no way to dispute this unless someone else contradicts it

“‘I’m going to get it over with so that you don’t have to,’ he says because thats just the way the scale goes that day, when he weighs the pain of being alone versus the pain of being a burden.”

-This is an evaluative claim since the narrator is evaluating the situation between the veteran and his wife, and taking a look into why they’re getting divorced

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PTSD Claims-JohnWick66

“The amount of progress in Caleb’s six years of therapy has been frustrating for everyone.”

-Through this they are indicating that Caleb has made very little progress from his therapy

-“…Frustrating for everyone” They are trying to make it sound as if the therapy was nothing more than a slow drag not only for Caleb but for everyone around him to. I’m not saying that they are over exaggerating Caleb’s recovery but rather the people’s involved in it.

“But ultimately, says Alain Brunet, vice president of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies and director of the Traumatic Stress Laboratory at McGill University in Canada, “we have reason to be reasonably optimistic. Psychotherapy does work for typical PTSD.””

-“Psychotherapy does work for typical PTSD.” Just thought how this was a stark contrast to what was mentioned back in section four were Caleb was screened for PTSD and ,according to his wife “he got the second-worst score in the whole 18-county Gulf Coast VA system, which serves more than 50,000 veterans.” Alain Brunet’s line almost undercuts it because based off it. it makes it seem that either Caleb’s wife was overplaying the results or Mrs. Brunet is severally underplaying it(that Caleb has normal PTSD, which is still bad, but cuts away from the earlier quote)

-“we have reason to be reasonably optimistic. Psychotherapy does work for typical PTSD.” This heavily implies that it works extremely well for anyone with normal PTSD. But they don’t explain what’s considered normal PTSD, so how am I, the reader suppose to understand either 1. the success of the treatment in general, and two, the actual severity of Caleb PTSD.

“The VA tends to favor cognitive-behavioral therapy and exposure therapy—whereby traumatic events are hashed out and rehashed until they become, theoretically, less consuming.”

-Isn’t the problem with PTSD is that it triggers the victim of the disease, depending on the severity of it based off certain things that’ll trigger a flash back? So is it necessarily healthy to treat them by repeadtly making them relive those memories?

“For severe cases, the agency offers inpatient programs, one of which Caleb resided in for three months in 2010.”

-“For severe cases,..” Once again goes back and forth with how bad Caleb’s PTSD is.

“There’s a fairly strong consensus around CBT and EMDR,” Brunet says.

-What’s the consensus? They placed the quote in without even stating what the consensus even was in regards to CBT and EMDR

“While veterans are waiting for those to work, they’re often prescribed complicated antidepressant-based pharmacological cocktails.”

-Whats the point of waiting on progress of there treatments if there also gonna down “pharmacological cocktails”?

-Are there benefits to doing both simultaneously?

 “The Mental Health Research Portfolio manager says the organization is “highly concerned and highly supportive” of PTSD research.”

“But a lot of FOV members and users are impatient with the progress. Up until 2006, the VA was spending $9.9 million, just 2.5 percent of its medical and prosthetic research budget, on PTSD studies.”

-Even though its only 2.5% of there budget, $9.9 million is still a lot of money in terms for research. The writer makes it as if they are fed scraps. it would have been more impactful if they only left in the percentage of the funding instead of the actual money used.

-At the same time though it does diminish the value of what the Mental Health Research Portfolio manager said in regards to the organization being “highly concerned and highly supportive” of PTSD research.”

 “But studies take a long time, and any resulting new directives take even longer to be implemented.”

-That’s the point though, yes they take time but that’s so to make sure whatever is being researched is being done right. So that there are few, in any, gaps in terms of there understanding. To just rush through the research wouldn’t help at all.

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  • In 2009, it was Hovda who delivered the Pentagon the recommendation that because multiple concussions could cause serious long-term injury, concussions need time to heal. A fight ensued. Hovda says some of the Army’s best doctors implied that if soldiers were told they needed rest after concussions, it was going to usher in an epidemic of fakers, or retired guys claiming disability way after the fact.
    • This is a factual and evaluative claim as it is telling us in 2009 is when the government started to look at long-term brain injuries and it is looking at how the army approached taking care of soldiers
  • Although, the NFL was given the same memo in the 1990s, and brain damage in boxers is even older news, so it doesn’t seem like it would take a neuroscientist—or the top medical brass of an Army that builds laser cannons—to figure out that if 25 mph punches to the head cause brain damage, IED blasts that hit at 330 mph probably do too.
    • This is a quantitative and ethical claim as it is telling us that the nfl was using the same type of technology in the 1990s. Now the army is realizing with neuroscientists that it is likely that if an object hits your head you are likely to receive brain damage no matter the size of the object.
  • Eventually, Honda’s cause prevailed. These days, there are MRIs in theater, assessments after blasts, mandatory rest periods after a concussion.
    • This is a causal claim as it is telling us that with the technology that we have today we can figure out how long a person should rest after they have gotten a concussion from a blast. 
  • That they will never be the same—researchers “have tried hyperbaric oxygen, hundreds of clinical trials; we’re just failing miserably in trying to make a difference”—but that they should not panic.
    • This is an evaluative claim. The reasoning is that even with the trials that have been done to help with PTSD, there still is not a way that shows why that is panicking. 
  • The human brain has an enormous amount of plasticity. New cells are born every day. New connections can be made. The good news is, teleologically speaking, if we didn’t have the ability to recover from brain injury, we’d have ended up as somebody’s breakfast.”
  • This is a causal claim. The reasoning is that it claims that the brain is able to handle this trauma, but our brain should not be doing it very often.
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