White Paper – mrmba1

Working Hypothesis:

  • Learning and playing music through drumming or otherwise have positive effects on musicians’ lives.
  • Edited: Performing and practicing musicians live a longer, healthier life.

Source 1: Berchicci, Marika. “Benefits of Physical Exercise on the Aging Brain: The Role of the Prefrontal Cortex.” 2013. https://bit.ly/3vLcyyH

This study done by the Department of Human Movement at the University of Rome discusses and discovers that increased physical activity in later stages of life can help to preserve brain function, especially in the prefrontal cortex. This can be used to tie exercise to mental benefits before tying exercise to drumming and finally drumming to these benefits.

Source 2: Britton, Luke Morgan. “Insomnia, Anxiety, Break-ups… Musicians on the dark side of touring.” The Guardian. 2015. https://bit.ly/3wGzYGy

Discusses the straining mental demands of professional musicians as well as how it negatively impacts their social life. This source can be used to actually emphasize the positive mental and social impacts of being a professional or touring drummer.

Source 3: De La Rue, S. E. Energy Expenditure in Rock/ Pop Drumming. 2013. https://bit.ly/39qRuVl

Discusses the rigorous physical exertion found from drumming, and compares drumming to multiple “real” sports such as swimming or cycling. It continues to describe a study incorporating several drummers of many ages and skill levels that aimed to identify the amount of energy used as well as how physically demanding drumming actually is, and if it qualifies as exercise. This can be used to highlight many of the positive physical effects that drumming can have on people.

Source 4: Halevi-Katz, Dana N. “Exposure to music and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among professional pop/rock/jazz musicians.” 2015. https://bit.ly/3nQeIKG

This article described the immense amounts of sound waves that come from being a professional musician or even a casual drummer and how damaging they can be on the players’ ears. This can be used to provide the dual purpose of introducing a negative effect of drumming (hearing loss), as well as the steps required to prevent this negative from happening in the first place.

Source 5: Holt-Lunstad. “Loneliness and Social Isolation as Risk Factors for Mortality: A Meta- Analytic Review.” 2015. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691614568352

The study discussed the negative impact of social isolation, and found that humans who lacked meaningful social interactions had a higher risk of heart diseases, and in turn a higher risk for early mortality. Since professional drummers often require many hours of practice and can easily get lost in this practice. This can be used to display the argument that points out the possible devastating social effects of being a professional drummer.

Source 6:

Source 6: Kopp S., Maria. Where psychology meets physiology: chronic stress and premature mortality. 2003. https://bit.ly/3szmFp

This study found that high levels of stress led to premature death and other health risks. A simple yet powerful conclusion, this evidence was used in my rebuttal when discussing the dangerous mental effects of being a drummer. Being the drummer requires a lot of responsibility which can come with immense amounts of stress, and this study displays the effect of that stress. This can be used to explain the negative aspects of stress that come with being a professional drummer or other musician that’s relied upon.

Source 7: Penedo, Frank J. “Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity.” 2005. https://bit.ly/2QUyQir

This study explores the benefits of physical exercise and how it related to a healthier and longer life, reducing risks for things such as cardiovascular diseases and arthritis. This can be used to help readers understand the benefits of exercise before relating drumming to those benefits to get a deeper understanding of how drumming can be healthy in the long term.

Source 8: Perkins, Rosie. Making music for mental health: how group drumming mediates recovery. 2016. https://bit.ly/3sBRysO

This article follows mentally ill patients and recovering addicts through drumming treatments. It found that participating in these rhythmic, therapeutic drum circles sped up recovery and made that patients feel better mentally. This source can be used to display the overwhelming evidence in support of the positive mental effects of drumming.

Source 9: Selvanetti, Alberto. “Overuse tendon injuries: Basic science and classification.” 1997. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1060-1872(97)80031-7

This article listed numerous tendon injuries caused by overuse and constant stress. It described the different types of tendon injuries as well as what causes them. This can be used to describe the negative physical effects of drumming, as well as to provide some insight into how to prevent or postpone many of these injuries.

Source 10: Stoeber, Joachim, and Dirk Rennert. 2008. “Perfectionism in School Teachers: Relations with Stress Appraisals, Coping Styles, and Burnout.” Anxiety, Stress & Coping 21 (1): 37–53. https://bit.ly/33hYccR

The study describes school teachers and how their perfectionism leads to stress and burnout, however I believe it works just as well to provide negative effects of perfectionism in musicians and artists. It talked about how the constant unrealistic aim for perfection caused immense levels of stress and even caused the teachers to experience burnout. This study can be used to bring attention to the detrimental mental effects of being a professional musician.

Source 11: Vardonikolaki, Aikaterini. “Musicians’ Hearing Handicap Index: A New Questionnaire to Assess the Impact of Hearing Impairment in Musicians and Other Music Professionals.” 2020. https://doi.org/10.1044/2020_JSLHR-19-00165

This article discusses hearing loss and the dangers of extreme decibel levels that come with being a professional musician. It goes into more detail about the Musicians’ Hearing Handicap Index (HMMI) which is the recommended decibel levels of stage monitors for musicians. The article can be used to display the destructive power of drumming on the ears of the player.

Definition

  • Drummers seem to know something that most others don’t: the key to a healthy elongated existence. Drumming can have benefits equal to that of extreme sports, while simultaneously refining the mind, body, and spirit. It seems counterintuitive

Causal

  • Drumming is a great means of physical exercise. It is also a great mental workout when it comes to coordination, and a perfect social amplifier and medium when it comes to the community of performing music. Assisting in all aspects of health, drumming is a great choice to lead a healthy, long lasting life.

Rebuttal

  • Social inhibitors of drumming can be seen mainly through famous drummers of the twentieth century, where the pressure has gotten to them. Physically, there are all kinds of injuries that can be caused from this activity, some of which are irreversible such as hearing damage.

Current State of Research

  • Overall I am happy with the state of my research paper, as I believe it reached the conclusion and had the effect that I sought for. I feel as though there is still refinement that can be done, however in its current form I believe it to be beneficial and enjoyable to read for those who wish to learn about the benefits of drumming. It was enjoyable to take this path and follow research about my topic, and I feel as though the end result is something to be proud of.

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Definition Rewrite – mrmba1

The Drums of Youth

Many people consider the drumming lifestyle to be one of rebellion and impulsive life choices. Drummers of any band have a bad reputation of being the crazy, risk taking animal that the Muppets have declared them to be. However drummers seem to know something that most others don’t: the key to a healthy elongated existence. Drumming can have benefits equal to that of extreme sports, while simultaneously refining the mind, body, and spirit. With people like Charlie Watts from the Rolling Stones still drumming at the lively age of 79, and an orchestral drummer by the name of Viola Smith living and rocking out until her passing at the age of 107, there must be something that non drummers are simply missing out on- a long, healthy, and happy life.

To first understand drumming’s physical benefits as a means of exercise, it’s important to look first at the benefits of exercising alone. Everyone understands that exercise is healthy and good for the body, but to understand more clearly, Frank J. Penedo goes into extreme detail in his study “Exercise and Well Being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity.” Through examining multiple subjects and data, Penedo concludes, along with Jason Dahn, that “physical inactivity doubles health risks,” and “such inactivity during middle age appears to shorten the lifespan.” It has a clear benefit and association with extended life expectancy and health. Exercise on its own is able to keep one’s body at peak performance, or at least in better shape than no activity. It can, as Penedo states, reduce risks for cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and arthritis in later years, and these are merely the physical benefits associated with exercise.

Physical activity in later years also assists in preserving the mind and mental state of individuals. A lack of activity or exercise can cause slower reactions and response times as well as lead to decreased motor coordination. In a study performed by Marika Berchicci et al titled “Benefits of Physical Exercise on the Aging Brain,” it was found that physical exercise is particularly important from middle age onwards when it comes to this metal preservation aspect. Berchicci states that “in middle-aged and older individuals, moderate-to-high levels of physical exercise has beneficial effects on the planning and execution of a response.” It is clear that continued and consistent activity can result in prolonged mental alertness and proficiency in addition to preserving motor skills by activating the prefrontal cortex, as Berchicci has concluded. 

The benefits of exercise have been explored, it’s easier to understand how physical activity, especially in those of older ages, can help to facilitate a healthier and in some cases elongated lifestyle. Now it is possible to look onto drumming and become aware of just how physically and mentally demanding it truly is. Several studies, such as those by Rosie Perkins and De La Rue explore the physical side of drumming and are able to conclude just how demanding it truly is, comparing it to that of equally demanding sports and other means of exercise. With drumming being compared this way, it makes the claim that drumming leads to a longer life that much more understandable and real.

References

Berchicci, Marika. “Benefits of Physical Exercise on the Aging Brain: The Role of the Prefrontal Cortex.” 2013. https://bit.ly/3vLcyyH

De La Rue, S. E. “Energy Expenditure in Rock/ Pop Drumming.” 2013. https://bit.ly/39qRuVl
Penedo, Frank J. “Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity.” 2005. https://bit.ly/2QUyQir

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Definition – mrmba1

The Drums of Youth

Many people consider the drumming lifestyle to be one of rebellion and impulsive life choices. Drummers of any band have a bad reputation of being the crazy, risk taking animal that the Muppets have declared them to be. However drummers seem to know something that most others don’t: the key to a healthy elongated existence. Drumming can have benefits equal to that of extreme sports, while simultaneously refining the mind, body, and spirit. With people like Charlie Watts from the Rolling Stones still drumming at the lively age of 79, and an orchestral drummer by the name of Viola Smith living and rocking out until her passing at the age of 107, there must be something that non drummers are simply missing out on- a long, healthy, and happy life.

To first understand drumming’s physical benefits as a means of exercise, it’s important to look first at the benefits of exercising alone. Everyone understands that exercise is healthy and good for the body, but to understand more clearly, Frank J. Penedo goes into extreme detail in his study “Exercise and Well Being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity.” Through examining multiple subjects and data, Penedo concludes, along with Jason Dahn, that “physical inactivity doubles health risks,” and “such inactivity during middle age appears to shorten the lifespan.” It has a clear benefit and association with extended life expectancy and health. Exercise on its own is able to keep one’s body at peak performance, or at least in better shape than no activity. It can, as Penedo states, reduce risks for cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and arthritis in later years, and these are merely the physical benefits associated with exercise.

Physical activity in later years also assists in preserving the mind and mental state of individuals. A lack of activity or exercise can cause slower reactions and response times as well as lead to decreased motor coordination. In a study performed by Marika Berchicci et al titled “Benefits of Physical Exercise on the Aging Brain,” it was found that physical exercise is particularly important from middle age onwards when it comes to this metal preservation aspect. Berchicci states that “in middle-aged and older individuals, moderate-to-high levels of physical exercise has beneficial effects on the planning and execution of a response.” It is clear that continued and consistent activity can result in prolonged mental alertness and proficiency in addition to preserving motor skills by activating the prefrontal cortex, as Berchicci has concluded. 

The benefits of exercise have been explored, it’s easier to understand how physical activity, especially in those of older ages, can help to facilitate a healthier and in some cases elongated lifestyle. Now it is possible to look onto drumming and become aware of just how physically and mentally demanding it truly is. Several studies, such as those by Rosie Perkins and De La Rue explore the physical side of drumming and are able to conclude just how demanding it truly is, comparing it to that of equally demanding sports and other means of exercise. With drumming being compared this way, it makes the claim that drumming leads to a longer life that much more understandable and real.

References

Berchicci, Marika. “Benefits of Physical Exercise on the Aging Brain: The Role of the Prefrontal Cortex.” 2013. https://bit.ly/3vLcyyH

De La Rue, S. E. “Energy Expenditure in Rock/ Pop Drumming.” 2013. https://bit.ly/39qRuVl
Penedo, Frank J. “Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity.” 2005. https://bit.ly/2QUyQir

Posted in Definition Categorical, mrmba1 | Leave a comment

rebuttal rewrite-honeysucklelilac

The Best Option For The Environment

Thrift stores are the best places for clothes to go so their wearable lifetime extends beyond the first owner. These secondhand stores are not only the most convenient and popular places for clothes to be dropped off but also the best environmentally friendly option. There are other ways for consumers to dispose of their clothes that include throwing them away so they end up in landfills and take years to break down. People could also drop them off at recycling centers so they can be turned into other items such as upholstery and seat stuffing but the carbon emissions are extremely large. Recovering the energy used from burning textiles sounds like an okay idea until you look at how much energy is used to burn the materials. These alternatives don’t accomplish increased longevity of the lifespan of clothes like thrift stores. 

Throwing clothes away is the least environmentally friendly option because most clothes contain manmade fibers that don’t break down as easily and they release toxic greenhouse gasses like carbon dioxide and methane. Smart Guide to Climate Change author Christine Ro makes the point in “Can fashion ever be sustainable?”, that as much as 10% of greenhouse gasses come from human activity. Carry Somers, founder and global operations director of the nonprofit organization Fashion Revolution in an interview for Wbur “The Environmental Cost of Fashion,” notes that “Even extending the life of our garments by an extra nine months of active use would reduce the carbon, water and waste footprint by around 20% to 30% each.” According to the US census, “There are currently more than 25,000 resale, consignment and Not For Profit resale shops in the United States.” Donating clothes to thrift stores is the most convenient way to recycle old clothes. 

Textile recycling is when fabrics are collected and then reprocessed into useful products. This process is better than throwing clothes away, but the carbon waste and greenhouse gasses emitted is still much greater than donating clothes to thrift stores. In a study done for MDPI by Toshiro Semba, Yuji Sakai, Miku Ishikawa and Atsushi Inaba titled, Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions by Reusing and Recycling Used Clothing in Japan, the CO2 emissions of clothes that were “reclaimed” or thrifted was only 2.10×109kg. To compare, from the same study it was found that the CO2 emissions from clothes that were used for textile recycling was almost double at 4.01x 109kg. There are thrift stores located in every town across America meaning, there is easy access and common knowledge as to where the closest one is in relation to an individual. If people go to drop off their clothes at a thrift store in their town that’s close enough to them that they can walk to, they wouldn’t even be contributing to releasing carbon emissions from driving a car. According to the EPA the average carbon emissions for a car per year is 4.6 metric tons. To put the carbon emissions of a car into perspective when comparing it to the emissions from textile recycling, there are only about 4100 kilograms in 1 ton. In one year, a car emits about 4.4×106 kg of carbon emission in comparison to textile recycling’s 4.01×109kg. 

Recovering the energy used from burning textiles is a way to recycle clothes but doing so raises environmental concerns. A study done for the Royal Institute of Technology, Environmental Assessment of Textile Material Recovery Techniques by Lena Yohannan found that the main benefit of incineration is that textiles don’t need to be separated and the collected waste can be brought directly to the incineration plant. However, when textiles are incinerated in large amounts there is the potential issue that the packed textile particles can leave material about it un-ignited. Incineration of textiles causes negative impacts on the environment because of the ashes, both bottom and fly away in addition to other emissions. It’s also important to note that the study done by Yohannan found that most of the energy being used came from non-renewable energy sources. Yohannan shockingly notes that, “When only considering the combustion of the cotton and polyester content in 1 ton of textile waste, 785 kg of CO2 is found to be emitted.” When you incinerate clothes, plastic is being burned which contributes to the emission of CO2.

After examining other avenues of getting rid of clothes from one’s closet it has been found that donating is the best option. From a convenience standpoint, finding a thrift store is much easier than finding a textile recycling bin or incinerator as they are the most accessible places to drop off old clothes. Textile recycling causes more CO2 emissions than dropping clothes off at a local thrift store. Burning the textiles can create energy that can be reused but it takes more energy to burn the clothes than it makes up for. 

References

Can fashion ever be sustainable? Retrieved May 01, 2021, from Can fashion ever be sustainable? 

Greenhouse gas emissions from a typical passenger vehicle. (2018, May 10). Retrieved May 01, 2021, from Greenhouse gas emissions from a typical passenger vehicle.

Semba, T., Sakai, Y., Ishikawa, M., & Inaba, A. (2020). Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions by Reusing and Recycling Used Clothing in Japan. Sustainability, 12(19), 8214. doi:10.3390/su12198214

Young, R., & Hagan, A. (2019, December 03).The environmental cost of fashion.  Retrieved May 01, 2021 

Posted in honeysucklelilac, Portfolio HoneySuckleLilac, Rebuttal Rewrite | 2 Comments

rebuttal argument-honeysucklelilac

The Best Option For The Environment

Thrift stores are the best places for clothes to go so their wearable lifetime extends beyond the first owner. These secondhand stores are the most convenient and popular places for clothes to be dropped off. There are other ways for consumers to dispose of their clothes that include throwing them away so they end up in landfills, dropping them off at recycling centers so they can be turned into other items such as upholstery and seat stuffing and recovering the energy used from burning textiles.
Throwing clothes away is the least environmentally friendly option because most clothes contain manmade fibers that don’t break down as easily and they release toxic greenhouse gasses like carbon dioxide and methane. Smart Guide to Climate Change author Christine Ro makes the point in “Can fashion ever be sustainable?”, that as much as 10% of greenhouse gasses come from human activity. Carry Somers, founder and global operations director of the nonprofit organization Fashion Revolution in an interview for Wbur “The Environmental Cost of Fashion,” notes that “Even extending the life of our garments by an extra nine months of active use would reduce the carbon, water and waste footprint by around 20% to 30% each.” According to the US census, “There are currently more than 25,000 resale, consignment and Not For Profit resale shops in the United States.” Donating clothes to thrift stores is the most convenient way to recycle old clothes.
Textile recycling is when fabrics are collected and then reprocessed into useful products. This process is better than throwing clothes away, but the carbon waste and greenhouse gasses emitted is still much greater than donating clothes to thrift stores. In a study done for MDPI by Toshiro Semba, Yuji Sakai, Miku Ishikawa and Atsushi Inaba titled, Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions by Reusing and Recycling Used Clothing in Japan, the CO2 emissions of clothes that were “reclaimed” or thrifted was only 2.10x109kg. To compare, from the same study it was found that the CO2 emissions from clothes that were used for textile recycling was almost double at 4.01x 109kg. There are thrift stores located in every town across America meaning, there is easy access and common knowledge as to where the closest one is in relation to an individual. If people go to drop off their clothes at a thrift store in their town that’s close enough to them that they can walk to, they wouldn’t even be contributing to releasing carbon emissions from driving a car. According to the EPA the average carbon emissions for a car per year is 4.6 metric tons. To put the carbon emissions of a car into perspective when comparing it to the emissions from textile recycling, there are only about 4100 kilograms in 1 ton. In one year, a car emits about 4.4×106 kg of carbon emission in comparison to textile recycling’s 4.01x109kg.
Recovering the energy used from burning textiles is a way to recycle clothes but doing so raises environmental concerns. A study done for the Royal Institute of Technology, Environmental Assessment of Textile Material Recovery Techniques by Lena Yohannan found that the main benefit of incineration is that textiles don’t need to be separated and the collected waste can be brought directly to the incineration plant. However, when textiles are incinerated in large amounts there is the potential issue that the packed textile particles can leave material about it un-ignited. Incineration of textiles causes negative impacts on the environment because of the ashes, both bottom and fly away in addition to other emissions. It’s also important to note that the study done by Yohannan found that most of the energy being used came from non-renewable energy sources. Yohannan shockingly notes that, “When only considering the combustion of the cotton and polyester content in 1 ton of textile waste, 785 kg of CO2 is found to be emitted.” When you incinerate clothes, plastic is being burned which contributes to the emission of CO2.
After examining other avenues of getting rid of clothes from one’s closet it has been found that donating is the best option. From a convenience standpoint, finding a thrift store is much easier than finding a textile recycling bin or incinerator as they are the most accessible places to drop off old clothes. Textile recycling causes more CO2 emissions than dropping clothes off at a local thrift store. Burning the textiles can create energy that can be reused but it takes more energy to burn the clothes than it makes up for.

References


Can fashion ever be sustainable? Retrieved May 01, 2021, from Can fashion ever be sustainable?
Greenhouse gas emissions from a typical passenger vehicle. (2018, May 10). Retrieved May 01, 2021, from Greenhouse gas emissions from a typical passenger vehicle.
Semba, T., Sakai, Y., Ishikawa, M., & Inaba, A. (2020). Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions by Reusing and Recycling Used Clothing in Japan. Sustainability, 12(19), 8214. doi:10.3390/su12198214
Young, R., & Hagan, A. (2019, December 03).The environmental cost of fashion. Retrieved May 01, 2021

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Reflective – iwantpopsicle

Core Value 1. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.

I definitely met this core value to my fullest ability. When writing my Definition Argument, I spent plenty of time scouring for viable information. When exploring something as big and broad as borderline personality disorder, I made sure to do plenty of time exploring. There is a lot of information, strict definitions, and personal testimony that can be gathered when exploring the subject of BPD, and there are also a lot of places on the internet to find that. I found that is was somewhat difficult to provide a conceptualization of borderline personality disorder without it seeming overwhelming and confusing, so I utilized a lot of other people’s definitions and descriptions and tried to condense it down into my own.

There was also a time when I had finished writing my essay, but noticed that I was lacking in developing my idea. My argument seemed kind of vague in some areas, and I went back to strengthen my point by being more specific about how there is a stigma affecting a specific group of mentally ill individuals, and how those people suffer within themselves.

Core Value 2. My work demonstrates that I read critically, and that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create meaning by synthesizing ideas from various discourse communities. 

In my Stone Money Essay, I ended up analyzing a few texts/audio sources and placing them into “conversation” with each other by pulling from their understanding of money and how it exists. I analyzed a source about the people of Yap Island, and how they use their massive stone disks as currency. Being that these stones have no inherent value, it takes time to understand how they use them as currency. This brought me to the conclusion that currency is completely made up and subjective to each group of people. I also used a source that described Bitcoin, and how it was a completely made top currency with fluctuating value. By comparing these two sources and places their main ideas adjacent to each other, I could further strengthen my claim that money is completely made up.

One thing I think I could have done better is make that comparison more of a “conversation” and make a paragraph where I directly compared the ideas of all my sources while showing their differences along with their similarities. This would have made my claim much stronger.

Core Value 3. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my own writing and other texts and visual arguments.

In my Visual Rhetoric assignment, I successfully analyzed the purpose and context of the video that I was presented with. I was tasked with visually breaking down every single frame of an advertisement for the COVID vaccines. First of all, I wanted to analyze the purpose. I described how the kids in the shot were shown to be extremely happy that they could finally see their grandma, and how both of their parents were extremely satisfied with it. The grandma also spent most of her days missing her grandkids, so this was the climax of the ad when she could see them. I wanted to mention this because it shows that the purpose of the ad is to emotionally appeal to you, and make you want to get vaccinated.

In my analysis, I didn’t directly state the audience of the of the video, but in my Definition Essay I did. I made my intended audience very clear by focusing on the healthcare provider stigma, as well as the general population stigma and making references to both at multiple times in my essay. The audience was made extremely clear in every paragraph, and I made sure to even provide direct quotes of my intended audience exhibiting their stigmatizing viewpoints.

My Visual Rhetoric assignment did however provide context for the video I was presented with. By the end of my analysis, you can very clearly tell that the video is about COVID vaccination and how it will allow for virus prone elderly people to see their grandkids again. I did a good job of making this as clear as I possibly could, especially since I had no audio to work with in this case.

Core Value 4: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.

In my work, I never used any illustrations to support my writing, but I utilized a plethora of academic and general sources. I spent a lot of time on each of my works digging through the internet to find viable sources to support each of my works. In my Rebuttal Argument, I most properly exemplified this. I found several academically credible opinions and facts and used them against my target audience after citing and explaining them. I used the opinion of a doctor speaking against those who suffer with BPD to prove that he is wrong by describing the actual symptoms of BPD, and how co-morbid conditions are the only way that his claim that those with BPD are violent can be credible.

I also did this in my Visual Rhetoric assignment by describing every single frame of the video I was presented with to support my interpretation of everything I was seeing. My initial interpretations ended up being correct because I analyzed every single frame and everything that was occurring in each frame.

Core Value 5. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation. 

This is the core value that I feel as though I achieved the best. All of my assignments represent academic integrity and credibility, and utilize appropriate usage of potentially powerful information. My Causal Essay was definitely the most important task to make sure I met this core value with. In my Causal Essay, I defined a lot of different Borderline Personality Disorder traits, and paired them with different stigmas associated with each. I had to make sure that this information was accurate in order to remain credible and effective in my approach to my argument. All of the information regarding the causes of the stigma towards those who suffer from borderline personality disorder was supported by an academic source with factual information. The reason that this was so important is that I needed to make sure that I represented BPD sufferers as accurately as possible. I didn’t want to misrepresent them and provide false reasons as to why the stigma is invalid and unfounded. If I provided false information for such an important claim, I would be ethically wrong and someone could use my information against me to victimize someone, which was the opposite of my objective.

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Annotated Bibliography – iwantpopsicle

Borderline Personality Disorder

Background: Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in affect regulation, impulse control, interpersonal relationships, and self-image. The cause of this personality disorder is only somewhat known currently, but it seems to stem from physical, emotional, and sexual abuse as a child. About 1-2% of the general population is affected by this disorder, and about 10% of people with BPD commit suicide. This is a very high number of people considering how that number relates to the total number of individuals that have it. Individuals with BPD require significantly more mental health resources than those with other common mental health disorders, because BPD causes severe psychosocial impairment and makes it hard to live a normal, functioning life. 

How I used it: I used this source to detail what characterizes Borderline Personality Disorder. I identified most of the diagnostics for the disorder, and touched on the causes of the disorder developing in early childhood. I also identified how common the disorder is, and how many people commit suicide as a result in order to paint a picture of just how severe BPD can be for sufferers. This helps me emotionally appeal to my reader and make it a point that those with BPD suffer intensely.

The Lifetime Course of Borderline Personality Disorder

Background: When people with BPD are not seen in a formal mental health treatment setting, they are often seen when in times of crisis. This leads people to believe that those with BPD are constantly in crisis and are never recovering. The truth is that while those with BPD do suffer intensely a lot of the time, their condition is proven to improve over time with proper treatment. BPD can be effectively treated with Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). Being that BPD stems from childhood trauma, it can be reliably and validly diagnosed in adolescence. Risk factors for developing BPD in adolescents include maternal-child discord, maternal BPD, and depression. In a 10 year study of 668 patients, researchers found that the patients had improved with their condition over the 10 year period while being treated. 

How I used it: With this source my goal was to identify the stigma, and help neutralize it with facts. Those with BPD are stigmatized because they are believed to be in crisis at all times. But this is not the case. They tend to improve with time and therapy, therefore the stigma is much less valid. I also identified that BPD can be diagnosed in childhood, since it develops in early childhood, in order to show that treatment can begin at a young age and potentially completely reverse the process before it becomes too ingrained in one’s personality.

Effectiveness of Partial Hospitalization in the Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Background: Researchers took 38 patients that were diagnosed with BPD and placed them into two different groups. One group received partially hospitalized care, while the other group received standard psychiatric care. The measures that they were looking for included frequency of suicide attempts and self harm, inpatient visits and their duration, depressive symptoms, anxiety, interpersonal function, and social function. At the end of the study, they found that psychoanalytically focused partial hospitalized treatment was significantly more effective than standard psychiatric care. Patients in the partially hospitalized group showed significantly less frequent self harm, and much improved depressive symptoms.

How I used it: This study shows that there is a definite change in the severity of Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms with proper treatment. This reduces the validity of the stigma towards these individuals by showing that they can recover and learn to behave differently with proper treatment. I wanted to use a study that shows the direct comparison between effective and ineffective treatment in order to prove my point that there is help out there that works. I wanted to logistically appear to my reader by showing that there are effective treatment plans to steadily help BPD sufferers.

The Stigma of Personality Disorders

Background: Borderline Personality Disorder is shown to be the most stigmatized mental disorder, and also has the most research related to its stigma. Individuals with mental illness are viewed to be at fault for their mental illness, and it is portrayed that they somehow choose to exhibit these symptoms. Despite efforts to combat this stigma, research shows that the situation has not improved over time, and people still continue to stigmatize the mentally ill. Some of those with personality disorders are afraid to seek treatment for their mental illness in order to avoid being labelled as “crazy”. This creates a very hard life for those who are struggling, as they are afraid to even get help in the first place. Those with BPD are shown to “self-stigmatize” and view themselves as insane, or unhelpable. This causes them to have great shame in their disorder and for their lives in general. Research shows that some psychiatrists may avoid telling their patient that they have BPD, in order to help them avoid stigmatization from the system.

How I used it: I wanted to highlight a specific part of the stigma that can easily be debunked in order to strengthen my argument. The argument that people with BPD are at fault for their behaviors can be quickly debunked by analyzing the symptomatology of someone with BPD. They struggle with impulse control and emotional regulation, therefore they can’t be blamed for most of the times that they act out or feel out of control. I also wanted to appeal emotionally to my reader by highlighting the shame that these people feel as a result of the stigma and their distorted perception of themselves.

Why go to the emergency department? Perspectives from persons with borderline personality disorder

Background: Those with BPD are treated differently by healthcare professionals due to their diagnosis. Sulzer (2015) found that healthcare providers describe patients with BPD as “difficult” and a “pain in the ass”. They will stigmatize patients for the very behaviors that they are trying to correct, such as manipulative, attention seeking, and suicidal tendencies. These things are outside of the patient’s control, and they wouldn’t be in the doctor’s office if they could help it on their own. Those with BPD have a very limited ability to cope with intense emotions, and this can make them hard to treat. When they are blamed for these behaviors, it perpetuates the stereotype that those with BPD are just attention seekers and choose to act the way that they do. BPD is characterized with feelings of intense loneliness and fear of abandonment, so when healthcare providers make this worse by giving sufferers less than adequate service, it just exacerbates these awful feelings.

How I used it: With this source I wanted to identify the perpetrators of the stigma: the healthcare system. By directly quoting nurse’s statements on BPD sufferers, it shows how cruel healthcare professionals can be regarding BPD sufferers, which makes my reader feel bad for them. I also wanted to identify that these behaviors are outside of the patient’s control, which makes it even worse for someone to call them “a pain in the ass”. I made sure to point out that denying service to someone with BPD just makes their symptoms worse, and creates a vicious cycle.

Borderline Personality Disorder in the Emergency Department: Good Psychiatric Management

Background: Borderline Personality Disorder patients are frequent visitors to the emergency room. They represent a whopping 7% of all ER visits. They represent a unique set of challenges. This is because they are easily frustrated, and have a hard time communicating their feelings properly. They are likely to present recurrent suicidality, making them repeat visitors to the ER. They are often advised to visit the ER when their safety is in question, but this can sometimes be counterproductive due to the stigma surrounding them in the healthcare system.

How I used it: I used this source to show how wide reaching this stigma is. Being that 7% of all psychiatric ER visits are made up of BPD patients, it shows how large and serious this issue is. If almost all of these patients are experiencing stigma from healthcare professionals in their most dire time of need, they will get sucked into the vicious cycle and never get the help that they need. I wanted to show that these people are stuck in between a rock and a hard place when it comes to their treatment. I used this to appeal emotionally and logistically by showing how the suffering of BPD patients continues, and how many individuals the stigma can affect.

The Stigma Associated with Borderline Personality Disorder

Background: Healthcare professionals have been shown to either limit the amount of BPD patients that they see, or refuse to treat them altogether. Professionals sometimes treat patients with BPD, without the proper training to treat someone with BPD. Not only do patients leave feeling misjudged and improperly cared for, but professionals may feel as though they are inadequate in their abilities. This is an important thing to note about the source of the stigma. Patients are also sometimes labelled as a treatment resistant, and dropped as patients. This is because the doctors aren’t trained to handle them and understand them.

How I used it: I wanted to show how the stigma can also affect the doctors as well by making them feel inadequate. This further shows the damage that a general stigma can cause. I also wanted to identify a point of improvement, where doctors should be specially trained to deal with BPD patients if there are so many of them showing up for help. If doctors aren’t trained to help someone, they can’t effectively do so. 

Evil Genes

Background: The writer claims that crimes are often committed by those with severe personality disorders. Those with antisocial personality disorders commit deliberate acts of cruelty towards others. Borderline personality disorder sufferers are categorized in a more complicated way. They have intense feelings of love, and tend to use this to their advantage to make people they are close to vulnerable. 

How I used it: I wanted to disprove the notion that people with borderline personality disorder are inherently violent. They typically get grouped in with other personality disorders, and this is unfair. They are often confused with ASPD sufferers, and are wrongly identified as violent. Those with BPD tend to make social interactions harder for themselves, and manipulate people emotionally. They aren’t normally violent on their own. ASPD sufferers on the other hand are almost always violent, and can often be considered psychopaths. This is an important distinction to make.

Personality correlates of criminals: A comparative study between normal controls and criminals

Background: This study tries to find the answer to the question of whether or not criminals are born with their tendencies, or if it comes later down the line. It is believed that individuals who do not get much social interaction tend to develop antisocial personality disorder, and thus are more prone to psychopathy. A person’s personality is the main factor that dictates how they think and act according to their internal thoughts and emotions.

How I used it: I wanted to further highlight the differences between ASPD and BPD. This author identified the violent tendencies of ASPD sufferers, and the cause of the disorder. I used this to show how the development of these two disorders is highly different, and the results are therefore different.

Personality disorders and violence: What is the link?

Background: Antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder have been found to be strong correlates in the propensity of crime. These two personality disorders tend to exist comorbidly at a higher rate than most other personality disorders. These personality disorders tend to cause irresponsibility, failure to conform, and deceitfulness. When there is a comorbidity between these two disorders, individuals have a hard time externalizing and internalizing emotions at the same time, which can in return cause them to feel violent and act out.

How I used it: I wanted to point out the fact that BPD alone does not inherently make someone violent, but comorbidity with ASPD almost always does. While both disorders share some symptoms in common, they are not the same. However, when they both exist in one person, it can make someone act extremely irrationally and uncontrollably. This proves my point that the stigma towards BPD specifically is not rational if there are other disorders to blame in a comorbid diagnosis.

https://bpded.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40479-015-0033-x

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Research Position Paper – iwantpopsicle

The Stigmatization of Borderline Personality Disorder

Borderline personality disorder is often considered among the most emotionally painful (for sufferers and those affected by them) personality disorders. BPD is often diagnosed on the basis of quite a few symptoms and behaviors. BPD is a serious mental disorder with a characteristic pervasive pattern of instability in affect regulation, impulse control, interpersonal relationships, and self-image.(Lancet 2004) It is known to affect about 1-2% of the general population.

We don’t use parenthetical citation notes in this class.

Follow the guidelines for in-text citation in APA style.

Borderline personality disorder causes severe impairment in the sufferer’s life. They struggle daily with controlling their emotions, thoughts, and actions. They often describe having wild mood swings, making it difficult to describe their exact feelings at any given moment. Their opinions and outlook on life situations are prone to change rapidly and uncontrollably, making it hard for them to maintain a positive or consistent outlook on almost anything, especially when it comes to social relationships. They tend to exhibit a behavior which  is known as “splitting”, in which they will view every situation in black and white, rather than with gray areas, like a neurotypical individual. This is especially evident in their interpersonal interactions. They can go from idolizing or being absolutely infatuated with someone, to hating them in a split second. While this is out of their control, it is especially painful for those close to them. They also tend to have difficulty managing these thoughts, which tends to make them feel out of control or to self label themselves as “crazy” or “insane”. This can make it hard for sufferers to feel like they even know themselves, and have a hard time establishing their own identity, which is rapidly shifting and unstable.

Periods and commas go inside the quotation marks. Always.

Those afflicted with this disorder tend to seek professional help, especially in times of great crisis. According to Robert S. Biskin’s academic article The Lifetime Course of Borderline Personality Disorder, Sufferers of BPD are often seen only when in times of crisis, if they are not already part of a long time treatment program. This leads many to have the impression that those with BPD are constantly in crisis and are never recovering, which in turn causes mental health professionals to stigmatize these individuals and give them little to no real treatment. However, research shows the opposite of this.

Article titles require Quotation Marks, not Italics:

According to Robert S. Biskin’s academic article “The Lifetime Course of Borderline Personality Disorder,” sufferers of BPD . . . .

In the McLean Study of Adult Development, a group of 290 patients originally hospitalized at McLean Hospital with a diagnosis of BPD, were assessed 6 months after the start of the study, and then annually for 10 years. By the end of the study, 85% of patients described a 12 month or longer period of symptom remission and improvement. This proves that with proper care and treatment, sufferers of borderline personality disorder do have the potential to make significant progress and live better lives.

In a similar study by the American Journal of Psychiatry, a group of 38 patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder were placed in either partially hospitalized care, or standard psychiatric, appointment based care. Both groups were measured on their frequency of self harm or suicide attempts, number of inpatient admissions, and their own measures of depression, anxiety, and interpersonal function. The partially hospitalized group of patients showed substantially decreased negative symptoms when compared to the group met with standard psychiatric care. This shows that specialized care for these individuals is key to helping them improve their condition significantly and properly. 

According to Lindsay Sheehan’s psychiatric article The Stigma of Personality Disorders, stigma can be described as a range of a lack of eye contact, to complete ostracization of an individual belonging to a stigmatized group. Due to public attitudes towards mental illness, the mentally ill are often seen as to blame for their behaviors, as if it is their conscious choice to act out. Not only is BPD among the most stigmatized of all personality disorders, but it is also the most researched in terms of Stigma.(Sheehan 2016) When asking nurses in Israeli psychiatric hospitals about their views of different mental health patients, they showed the most negative attitudes towards those with Borderline Personality Disorder. Another study showed that psychiatrists tend to exhibit the least empathy towards those with BPD. 

This is a very complicated issue not only because of the poor treatment, but for the reason that this knowledge completely discourages sufferers from seeking help. Why would you seek help, when you know the person helping isn’t going to do their job? This is the kind of helpless mindset that those with BPD often have not only towards their lives in general, but also their healthcare providers. There needs to be established trust and transparency between patients and mental health specialists, as this is the only way effective treatment can occur.

In Amanda Vandyk’s original article titled Why go to the emergency department? Perspectives from persons with borderline personality disorder, she states that most healthcare providers describe that patients with BPD are “difficult” and “a pain in the ass”. This kind of attitude shows that a portion of clinicians clearly dread dealing with these patients. They have also been found to describe patients as “attention-seeking” and “manipulative”. Those with BPD suffer from intense feelings of loneliness, despair, and fear of abandonment. This directly triggers an emotional response due to these fears. 

The most important thing to remember about individuals with BPD is that they never choose to act the way that they do. The symptoms of BPD are extremely intense and uncontrollable. Sufferers struggle to survive in their own skin with these symptoms, which is why they seek licensed professionals to help them. If they could control these feelings, thoughts, and behaviors, they wouldn’t be in a psychiatrist’s office multiple times a week looking for assistance. Understanding and acknowledging the struggles of those with borderline personality disorder is imperative to treating them. Healthcare professionals need to take the time to evaluate these people respectfully and develop better strategies to treat and handle them. With a personality disorder mainly characterized with a fear of feeling hopeless and alone, turning a sufferer away rather than helping them pushes them down a hole they will have a very hard time climbing out of on their own.

Despite how cruel the stigma of this mental health affliction is, it doesn’t exist for no reason. People with BPD are admittedly uncontrollably troublesome, incessant, and hard to control. The frequency of their suicide attempts is often seen as attention seeking, and people hospitalized from their BPD are often discharged faster than any other group of patients in a hospital. (Sheehan 2016) This is because of their emotionally extreme and outrageous behaviors.

Those with BPD have a lot on their plate, as we already know. They can’t control their emotional responses nearly as well as an average person, and their moods never settle to a stable position for very long. They have to hide their diagnosis out of fear of people finding out and labelling them crazy, or distancing themselves from them. With a constantly cluttered mind and dysregulated emotions, they are like a time bomb waiting to explode any second into impulsive behaviors galore. 

We see insanely high rates of hospitalization from this group of mental health patients. They make up 9% of all psychiatric emergency room visits in the US. (Hong 2016) Despite being stigmatized, these individuals still seek the care of emergency providers. It may seem counterproductive to do this, but the answer is depressing, but unfortunately true. These people have absolutely nowhere else to go when they NEED help. The critical emotional state that BPD sufferers are internally capable of reaching is very dangerous. While in this state, they can and will make very impulsive decisions. This can include sex, rampant drug use, or even attempted suicide. They can’t be trusted to be left alone. For this very reason, they need to be observed, protected, and controlled for the time that they are hospitalized. This makes the stigma they receive almost unavoidable, which makes a double edged sword: Go to the ER to protect your own life while being treated like a nuisance, or stay home and risk hurting yourself or even others.

One of the reasons that ER staff become so irritated, annoyed, and tired of borderline personality disorder patients is due to the frequency of visits, comorbidity of symptoms, and their attitudes. According to Victor Hong MD’s journal Borderline Personality Disorder in the Emergency Department: Good Psychiatric Management, “High rates of comorbidity (mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and eating disor- ders) among BPD patients further complicate matters. BPD patients are often advised to visit the ED when in crisis and when safety is in question, but experiences in the ED can dam- age the patient and undermine treatment progress.” BPD related visits often end up becoming seriously complicated due to either misdiagnosis, or other conditions presenting themselves. BPD sufferers often present symptoms of various other mental health conditions. This includes Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Chronic Depression, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. This can make treatment and diagnosis very tricky and complicated for doctors.

BPD patients are also very frequently showing up to the ER. BPD remains one of the most common hospitalized mental health conditions. Those with BPD have a very hard time functioning on their own, and need to rely on emergency services when they need it. Symptoms of BPD fluctuate in severity from patient to patient, but anyone who is previously untreated is going to have much more intense and prevalent symptoms than someone who has been in therapy before.

In author Cameron Hancock’s article The Stigma Associated with Borderline Personality Disorder, he claims “Individuals experiencing BPD are also frequently labeled as “treatment resistant” and dropped as patients. But when this happens, it reinforces the common misconception that reaching out for help is hopeless. It can also intensify symptoms that caused an individual to seek help in the first place…” Knowing this, it makes it no surprise that sufferers keep coming back for more. BPD patients go to the emergency room when it is absolutely necessary for their survival. This means that they are in an emotionally vulnerable state in every single way possible. They already have a hard time communicating when they aren’t even necessarily in crisis, so this is magnified by a considerable amount when they are barely hanging on to their lives. This can make it very difficult for doctors to help them, as they might try and refuse help from the doctor. At some point, the effort might seem meaningless or futile to a doctor and he/she may just give up on the patient. “The emotional dysregulation and hypochondriasis so com- mon in BPD patients can lead to hostility and dysregulation in their mental health providers. The often inadequate in- terview spaces, lack of appropriate disposition options, and limited time with which to assess patients in the psychiatric ED only heighten the tension.” (Hong 2016) Doctors can also end up even being hostile towards patients. Not only is the BPD patient feeling potentially hostile, but this can spark that behavior in the doctor out of pure frustration. This dynamic can be very dangerous physically, mentally, and emotionally. From this situation, the displayed behaviors from the patient will only escalate further and further. In their most critical time, they are expecting to be given tender and gentle care to help get them back to health. When a doctor responds in such a hostile manner, it can seriously damage the patient’s ability and willingness to continue with the given care.

Even if this is wrong from a professional or moral perspective, it does make sense. Possibly the worst part of these situations is that it just reinforces the BPD sufferer’s distorted worldview of perceived abandonment, making them even harder to treat in the future. This cycle continues to repeat, doctor after doctor, until the person in question has absolutely no idea of where to go from there. With clear causes identified as to why BPD patients are stigmatized, we may be able to begin to help both doctors and patients find a healthy middle ground when it comes to treatment.

The stigmatization of individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder does not end in the emergency room or the doctor’s office. The stigma really becomes a serious issue when it lends itself towards criminal activity, and the unjust perception that criminals are often BPD sufferers.

A lot of criminal activity is either blamed on psychopathic personality traits, or entirely attributed to personality disorders in general. This leads to the general perception that those with borderline personality disorder, or other personality disorders, are inherently capable of criminal activity, on any scale. While it is absolutely possible that someone with a personality disorder can commit any kind of crime, be it violent or just petty, it is not solely those individuals that perpetrate criminal activities.

Psychologist Melvin Konner, M.D., Ph.D. states “In essence, day-by-day evil is done by people with certain severe personality disorders…” he also claims “The thing about them though, is that they often love intensely and inspire the love of others. That’s what makes them powerful and what makes the people around them vulnerable. Their love is intense, controlling, unreliable, and toxic.” when referring to BPD patients in specific. While it is possible that there are criminals committing crimes on a daily basis that fall into the category of a borderline personality diagnosis, it cannot be concluded that all day-by-day crime is committed by those with personality disorders.

First, we need to examine the personality traits of those with borderline personality disorder that may lead them to commit crime. Individuals with BPD have a lot on their plate when it comes to impulse control and emotional regulation. These people typically have a very hard time controlling their impulses, and this symptomatology can vary in severity from person to person, similar to how it would in a neurotypical group of individuals. The difference between impulsivity in those with borderline personality disorder and a neurotypical individual is the response to those impulses. Those with BPD may have a hard time rationalizing avoiding a dangerous activity, or one that puts others in potential danger. Being that this emotional impulsivity exists stronger in BPD patients, it can paint the picture that they are more prone to committing crimes. However, this is not necessarily the case.

In the article Personality Disorders and Violence: What is the link? by Richard Howard, he claims “Moreover, antisocial/borderline PD comorbidity has been found to be strongly associated with degree of severe violence perpetrated by personality disordered offenders.” There are so many factors that need to be taken into account when generalizing a population of mental health patients, especially comorbidity. Comorbidity is the existence of multiple factors that play into the result of a given negative situation. While borderline personality disorder has never been found to be conclusively violent or inherently criminally motivating, antisocial personality disorder has been found to be a driving force in criminal activity. People with antisocial personality disorder tend to act carelessly and completely disregard the safety, feelings, and well-being of everyone around them. This is not characteristic of borderline personality disorder. When two conditions exist within the same person, it becomes nearly impossible to blame one aspect of their personality for their actions, which leads to a generalized viewpoint of all aspects of their personality playing into their violent/dangerous behavior.

In psychologist Sudhinta Sinha’s academic article Personality correlates of criminals: A comparative study of normal controls and criminals she says “If we scrutinize the life histories of people who commit and are convicted of real, or victimizing, crimes, especially the histories of recidivist criminals, we find that the criminal’s personality has become organized around the principle of attacking, going against, and taking from people as his/her way of relating to them. Early in life, he/she learned to take what he/she wanted. Once the personality is so organized, he/she repeatedly commits crime, and he/she does so compulsively.” This is the typical case when it comes to criminals: their behavior stems from a long history of acting out, or being horribly abused. When looking at borderline personality disorder, we don’t find this to be the cause. Individuals with borderline personality disorder usually begin to show symptoms of their condition after childhood neglect, sexual trauma, and physical abuse. The structure of someone with borderline personality disorder by itself is different than someone who is a violent, psychopathic criminal. Those with BPD tend to regress, rather than progress into someone who is violent. Their behaviors often serve as coping mechanisms and a way to defend themselves, and this doesn’t make them act out violently. Borderline personality disorder is not often categorized as violent, or maliciously cruel, while psychopathic disorders such as antisocial personality disorder are. 

Konner claims that those with borderline personality disorder use their intense emotions of love and attachment to their advantage, and this helps them make those around them vulnerable and emotionally compromised. While this is a true tendency of those with borderline personality disorder, it does not suggest criminal activity. These behaviors are often primarily exemplified in interpersonal relationships, rather than unprovoked crime or violence. The damage that these behaviors cause is limited to emotional damage in another person, not physical violence. Generalizing BPD sufferers in with all other personality disorders and their related crimes therefore does not carry any real weight.

NEEDS REFERENCES

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Reflective-Icedcoffeeislife

Core Value 1. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.

Throughout this writing class, my writing has been pushed to be better improved through the process. With the professor giving detailed feedback, help make it clear on how to develop my thesis throughout the paper. Taking the feedback that was help shape how i approach when I came to editing my writing. Looking at the abundances of sources that I had collected throughout the process of my research. This core value is demonstrated in my White paper, due to the amount of edits and how to constantly change throughout the semester. The white paper was the hub of where all my essays came from, that was where I got my sources and started to shape my essay. 

Core Value 2. My work demonstrates that I read critically and that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create meaning by synthesizing ideas from various discourse communities. 

This was something that I kind of struggled with throughout the class. Having to connect my sources into my thesis was challenging because if I did not read enough of the article, then it had a chance of not helping out my essay. Taking this information and trying it in a real life situation  was not the easiest thing to do. I think the paper that shows how I demonstrated this the most is my Causal argument because I had to connect my sources to my thesis in different ways to convince the reader of my thesis. I was able to make the connection between anxiety and swimmers, and will make it clear on how anxiety is being developed in swimmers today. 

Core Value 3. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my writing and other texts and visual arguments.

My original thesis for my argument was focusing on how anxiety affects swimmers. Where over time it has changed and gotten more specific how it affects swimmers and how it is overlooked most of the time. I need to make it clear that not every person is the same and that they will not be effected the same way as another person, but they will deal with anxiety in some way. This is best shown in my definition argument. I described the different ways that anxiety can affect a swimmer and how swimmers may deal with it. I made clear in my writing that I was giving a lot of detail into my argument to make the purpose of it clear to my audiences. In a way, they were able to understand why it is important to look at swimmers with anxiety. 

Core Value 4: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.

Through all of my work this semester, I felt like I supported my ideas and opinions very well with the sources I had found. This is best shown in my Causal Argument, I was able to make clear connections between how anxiety can affect swimmers. I used both techniques of having an academic tone in my writing, well also keeping my voices clear throughout the essay. Well writing my causal argument, it brought a new perspective on how anxiety is looked at in swimming, making it hard for swimmers to ask for help. I found sources that would help make this clear to the readers and how they might change their mind.

Core Value 5. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation. 

I feel that I was successful in all three of my arguments in how I represented the ideas. This is something that I have understood better throughout the semester. With some help from the professor, I can make sure that I am not making a simple mistake when I’m citing sources. Looking at different grammar techniques and looking over my writing more carefully, help me have a better understanding of how to make my work look better. In my definition essay and my annotated Bibliography, this can be seen how I have made improvements over the semester. Throughout this class, I have learned that making clear statements and proper citations made it possible for me to create a flowing argument.

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Research – mrmba1

Healthy Drumming, Healthy Life

Many people consider the drumming lifestyle to be one of rebellion and impulsive life choices. Drummers of any band have a bad reputation of being the crazy, risk taking animal that the Muppets have declared them to be. However drummers seem to know something that most others don’t: the key to a healthy elongated existence. Drumming can have benefits equal to that of extreme sports, while simultaneously refining the mind, body, and spirit. With people like Charlie Watts from the Rolling Stones still drumming at the lively age of 79, and an orchestral drummer by the name of Viola Smith living and rocking out until her passing at the age of 107, there must be something that non drummers are simply missing out on. Of all the ways to extend and increase the quality of one’s life, few would’ve guessed that drumming would help in doing just that. However, compared to other members of a band such as guitar players and vocalists, the drummer is the healthiest of all. Comparable to the likes of cycling and swimming, drumming is a great means of physical exercise. It is also a great mental workout when it comes to coordination, and a perfect social amplifier and medium when it comes to the community of performing music. Assisting in all aspects of health, drumming is a great choice to lead a healthy, long lasting life.

To first understand drumming’s physical benefits as a means of exercise, it’s important to look first at the benefits of exercising alone. Everyone understands that exercise is healthy and good for the body, but to understand more clearly, Frank J. Penedo goes into extreme detail in his study “Exercise and Well Being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity.” Through examining multiple subjects and data, Penedo concludes, along with Jason Dahn, that “physical inactivity doubles health risks,” and “such inactivity during middle age appears to shorten the lifespan.” It has a clear benefit and association with extended life expectancy and health. Exercise on its own is able to keep one’s body at peak performance, or at least in better shape than no activity. It can, as Penedo states, reduce risks for cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and arthritis in later years, and these are merely the physical benefits associated with exercise.

Physical activity in later years also assists in preserving the mind and mental state of individuals. A lack of activity or exercise can cause slower reactions and response times as well as lead to decreased motor coordination. In a study performed by Marika Berchicci et al titled “Benefits of Physical Exercise on the Aging Brain,” it was found that physical exercise is particularly important from middle age onwards when it comes to this metal preservation aspect. Berchicci states that “in middle-aged and older individuals, moderate-to-high levels of physical exercise has beneficial effects on the planning and execution of a response.” It is clear that continued and consistent activity can result in prolonged mental alertness and proficiency in addition to preserving motor skills by activating the prefrontal cortex, as Berchicci has concluded. Now that the benefits of exercise have been explored, it’s easier to understand how physical activity, especially in those of older ages, can help to facilitate a healthier and in some cases elongated lifestyle. Now it is possible to look onto drumming and become aware of just how physically and mentally demanding it truly is.

Everyone knows that to be healthy, you must exercise regularly. So it would make sense that being healthy enough to live longer can be attributed to exercise or vigorous physical activity. Through a study performed by the University of Gloucestershire, De La Rue et al. conclude that drumming- specifically of the rock and pop genres- has been found to have the same physical demands as activities such as “running, cycling, ice and field hockey, and competitive volleyball.” The study took several drummers and gave them a specific beat to play while measuring their heart rates. They found that the peak heart rate of the drummers was around 186bpm, which qualifies drumming as a vigorous physical activity and therefore exercise. “The time spent engaged in vigorous activity is sufficient that there are likely to be long-term health benefits from prolonged participation,” and while the life span of drummers specifically has never been researched, it’s clear that this abundant amount of exercise is only helping their health. Exercise through drumming provides enough METs, which is a measurement of the amount of energy it requires to sit- otherwise known as a metabolic equivalent- to where these individuals that were studied “have a significantly reduced risk of mortality from cardiovascular diseases,” states De La Rue. From this study it’s clear as to what the physical benefits of drumming are, but physical health isn’t all that attributes to a long lasting life.

Emotional health is just as important, and being immersed in the musical experience of drumming has been proven to assist in this aspect as well. Of course it’s clear to everyone how drumming can be a form of anger management, however it is also a means of meditation. Drumming presents a way for people struggling emotionally to increase the quality of their mood as well as alleviate anxiety.  The act of drumming requires immense concentration, “which can prevent worrying,” and as Perkins, author of “Making Music for Better Health,” describes, it causes “deep breathing, which can counteract anxiety, social support which can reduce feelings of isolation, learning which keeps the mind active, and regular commitment that motivates people to remain active.” Perkins goes on to say that for mental health to flourish, it’s understood that five elements are required to do so; positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and a sense of accomplishment, and drumming- even the world of music as a whole- satisfies all aspects. The drumming community alone provides immense support and a sensation of belonging, and the act of creating music through rhythmic drumming is perfect training for the mind. This sense of belonging and meaning through creating music is ideal for those who feel as though they don’t have a place or purpose- emotions that can lead to and cause a variety of mental health issues as well as the possibility of taking one’s own life. Of course there’s not a direct correlation stating that drumming prevents suicide, however those who have outlets and a means of dealing with stress ultimately have more positive thoughts and healthier lives.

Mentally, the drums are heavily reliant on coordination and focus, which are a must have for drummers. This vast amount of cognitive refinement that accompanies drumming is perfect for people who suffer from anxiety, depression, ADD, you name it. Focusing and committing to the drums requires a great deal of concentration and commitment as well, which for many aides in alleviating these irritating and sometimes maddening mental disorders. According to Maria S. Kopp’s article, “Where Psychology Meets Physiology,” high amounts of stress as well as mental turmoil, such as a sense of hopelessness, affect the lifespan of those who suffer, even affecting cardiovascular health. With drumming helping to reduce this stress and help mentally, it can act as a medium in reaching an extended life. Patients suffering from depression and other disorders are often introduced to a drum circle, and following the circle according to Perkins, one patient said that “I would go away and I had them [rhythms] in my head… the sound we produced was amazing. I focus on a sort of driving, repetitive thing that I just liked,” which provided an escape. It allows the busy and crowded minds of these individuals to fixate on one task, a task that requires so much concentration that the negatives are drowned out- like meditation. 

To live a long healthy life, all aspects of health must reach a high level of adequacy- physical, mental, and emotional. Drumming, as a medium, assists in all of these aspects. Having an outlet and activity as mentally demanding as drumming assists in cognitive strength and mental health, and being a part of it’s community and having a sense of purpose through the instrument provides emotional support. The physical benefits are clear as well, comparable to several high intensive activities. Overall, drumming satisfies all necessary subcategories of health, and can lead to a longer, healthier life.

With all good things, there are ultimately negatives that accompany the positives, and drumming is no exception. Even though there may seem to be a clear abundance of great health benefits from the act of drumming, there are physical and mental attributes that may seem to outway the good. Social inhibitors of drumming can be seen mainly through famous drummers of the twentieth century, where the pressure has gotten to them. Physically, there are all kinds of injuries that can be caused from this activity, some of which are irreversible such as hearing damage. However with all these negatives, it must seem like a claim that drummers live longer healthier lives couldn’t possibly be true.

The physical results that come from drumming are the most obvious, as they are the ones that can typically be the most dangerous and threatening to the drummer’s well being and career. Hearing damage is almost heavily associated with drumming, and is the most obvious negative outcome from the activity. In addition to simply hearing loss, Dana Halevi-Katz describes in her article “Exposure to music and noise-induced hearing loss,” that the “most frequent hearing disorders that affect musicians are tinnitus, a sporadic, acute phenomenon of phantom noise… and hyperacusis, an increased auditory sensitivity to loudness.” However this irreversible impairment is easily avoidable as long as the drummer properly protects their ears. Overuse injuries of tendons and joints are almost as common, with injuries such as tendonitis and “tennis elbow,” or lateral epicondylitis seriously affecting the ability and health of the drummer. All drummers from professional to casual are required to hit hundreds if not thousands of notes constantly, and when those notes come from constant bombardment from a stick of wood hitting several types of surfaces, injuries are bound to occur. With all these notes, as explained by Alberto Selvaettis, a Sports Medicine physician, “a cumulative microtrauma can result, leading to the mechanical fatigue of a tendon, that becomes unable to withstand further stress.” While these injuries can be clear reasons to steer clear of drumming, with proper technique it is possible to avoid these injuries, and the positive physical attributes such as the vigorous exercise counteract this negative.

The art and act of drumming, while it does help to refine the mind, can also seem to lead to some seriously detrimental mental effects. Primarily seen in performing and professional drummers, the constant stress, pressure, and responsibility that comes with being the drummer can easily overwhelm anyone. Drummers have the responsibility to hold the band together and provide structure and stability to any song being played, which can be extremely stressful for those who don’t know how to handle it.  They must learn to be good leaders, as they are the heart of the band and can change the overall feel of any song just by changing the groove. As musicians that specialize in rhythm, there is constant pressure to attain rhythmic perfection, speed, and accuracy in everything that is played, and as Joachim Stoeber describes in her study, “Perfectionism in School Teachers,” “perfectionism has been associated with higher levels of stress and burnout.” Many drummers that stop playing drums quit for this exact reason. When their hobby is made into a career, many drummers feel a sense of burnout, which is also caused by this fear of not achieving rhythmic and musical perfection. Stoeber continues by explaining “it is not striving for perfection that is associated with burnout, but negative reactions to failure to achieve perfection,” and the pressure of not being perfect and not being good enough gets the better of them so it can become appealing to abandon the activity all together. Although overwhelming, these demands help force leadership skills and self discipline to be obtained, ultimately bettering them as individuals and making them stronger mentally.

The pursuit of rhythmic and musical perfection demands a lot of time and dedication, and those countless hours required can easily sweep drummers as well as other musicians away from having a healthy social life outside of music. For drummers looking to make it big or even just college drummers and musicians in general, these countless hours of practicing , when taken to the extremes, lead to social isolation to accommodate these demands. In Holt Lunstad’s study, “Loneliness and Social Isolation as Risk Factors for Mortality,” this isolation has been proven to host several “psychological, behavioral, and biological pathways by which social isolation and loneliness leads to poorer health and decreased longevity.” Stepping away from college level, the travel that is required for touring drummers and the performance times required for studio drummers can also lead to this feeling of isolation. Of course, this only takes place if drummers shut themselves down to focus on achieving perfection, but for most musicians this rarely occurs and the social benefits of being a part of the community overcome this isolation. For touring musicians, many are away from home for months at a time or even a year. This time away can, as described by Luke Britton in “Musicians on the dark side of touring,” can cause “a breakdown of personal relationships, with many musicians feeling alienated from loved ones back home.” Outside of the music world, it is difficult for drummers to balance their social life. Although for many drummers, the music world is their only world and they wouldn’t have it any other way. This social cut off also allows musicians to meet hundreds of other people, that all love the same thing that they do. There is nothing comparable to the sense of community that comes with being a musician, and when it comes to drumming specifically, it’s like a universal family.

Like most things, drumming has its potential risks and negatives. With the physical, mental, and social benefits comes another side of the coin. To some it may seem as though the physical risks and mental demands of drumming are not worth it, and for many this may be a clear sign to avoid drumming either professionally or casually. But in the end, the benefits far outweigh the negatives and through the activity it is possible to become the healthiest version of one’s self. All negatives, whether physical injuries, mental stress, or social hindrances are easily avoidable and if approached properly can result in refinement and growth.

References

Berchicci, Marika. “Benefits of Physical Exercise on the Aging Brain: The Role of the Prefrontal Cortex.” 2013. https://bit.ly/3vLcyyH

Britton, Luke Morgan. “Insomnia, Anxiety, Break-ups… Musicians on the dark side of touring.” The Guardian. 2015. https://bit.ly/3wGzYGy

De La Rue, S. E. “Energy Expenditure in Rock/ Pop Drumming.” 2013. https://bit.ly/39qRuVl 

Halevi-Katz, Dana N. “Exposure to music and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among professional pop/rock/jazz musicians.” 2015. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4918652/

Holt-Lunstad. “Loneliness and Social Isolation as Risk Factors for Mortality: A Meta- Analytic Review.” 2015. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691614568352

Penedo, Frank J. “Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity.” 2005. https://bit.ly/2QUyQir

Kopp S., Maria. “Where psychology meets physiology: chronic stress and premature mortality.” 2003. https://bit.ly/3szmFp1

Perkins, Rosie. “Making music for mental health: how group drumming mediates recovery.” 2016. https://bit.ly/3sBRysO

Selvanetti, Alberto. “Overuse tendon injuries: Basic science and classification.” 1997. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1060-1872(97)80031-7.

Stoeber, Joachim, and Dirk Rennert. 2008. “Perfectionism in School Teachers: Relations with Stress Appraisals, Coping Styles, and Burnout.” Anxiety, Stress & Coping 21 (1): 37–53. https://search-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.rowan.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=27528905&site=ehost-live.


Vardonikolaki, Aikaterini. “Musicians’ Hearing Handicap Index: A New Questionnaire to Assess the Impact of Hearing Impairment in Musicians and Other Music Professionals.” 2020. https://doi.org/10.1044/2020_JSLHR-19-00165

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