White Paper- Daphneblake

Working Hypothesis 1:

The removal of trashcans with the replacement of recycling bins for plastic, composed from the recycled plastic, would decrease plastics from being broken down into micro plastics in the ocean which would reduce ocean pollution.

Working Hypothesis 2:

Creating edible straws, bottles, and silverware would significantly decrease ocean pollution and make the environment more eco-friendly.

Working Hypothesis 3:

using all the plastic waste on trash island, a large building or buildings could be created to decrease ocean and land pollution

Academic Sources:

  1. https://patents.google.com/patent/US20060286214A1/en

This cite is explaining how men named Sanford Weiss and Andrew Wolf patented the edible straw made of fruit in 2006. Mostly all the straws in America are made of plastic and they’re only being used for a short period of time in mostly small drinks at fast food restaurants. But they also explain how people are too lazy and greedy to invest in the straws. it is a bit more expensive, but worth it based on pollution.

2. https://www.plasticsmakeitpossible.com/plastics-at-home/home-garden/home-improvement/build-your-new-home-with-recycled-plastic-building-materials/

this cite talks about using plastic as a source to build houses and the specific plastic material used to set up the architctual composition. there have been multiple people who have began creating houses and sheds out of plastic, again it might be costly, but what is the money to saving the environment.

3. https://info.psu.edu.sa/psu/fnm/ymelhem/psu%20courses/business%20ethics/ethics%20and%20green/Beyond%20greening-%20Strategies%20for%20a%20Sustainable%20World%5B1%5D.pdf

this article discusses how our planet reached its peak of ecological problems and how it’s tied to large companies and corporations not using enough sustainable matierials and research. these companies try to support their actions based on cost and very few of them admit to even causing pollution in the first place.

4. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=eGsoDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT19&dq=causes+of+ocean+pollution&ots=z1p5-cdH7l&sig=YNITf2URW5MAUlo28phA3pXWNCE#v=onepage&q=causes%20of%20ocean%20pollution&f=false

this article discusses the problems and causes of ocean pollution and various solutions on how to solve them

5. https://www.dw.com/en/doing-your-bit-edible-straws-made-in-germany/av-45861404

this source talks about how people in Germany are making edible straws and how they have had a significant decrease in plastic waste.

Screenshot 2019-02-26 19.01.37

Topics for Smaller Papers:

  1. Making more recycling bins from plastic
  2. how ocean pollution negatively impacts the economy
  3. making edible silverware should be a law by the gov. for corporations

Current state of research paper:

I’m feeling like i have tons of information on my topic, but i’m having trouble solidifying a specific taking point in regards to plastic and ocean pollution.

Annotated Bibliography (due wed april 24)

  1. US Department of Commerce, & National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2008, October 08). What is the biggest source of pollution in the ocean? Retrieved March 31, 2019, from https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/pollution.html

2. Ell, K. (2018, July 10). Paper straws cost ‘maybe 10 times’ more than plastic straws, says paper straw distributor. Retrieved March 31, 2019, from https://www.cnbc.com/2018/07/09/paper-straws-are-better-for-the-environment-but-they-will-cost-you.html

3. Langone, A. (2018, July 23). No One Knew How Many Plastic Straws Americans Use Every Day. Then a 9-Year-Old Kid Did the Math. Retrieved March 31, 2019, from http://money.com/money/5343736/how-many-plastic-straws-used-every-day/

4. Klein, A., & ENVIRONMENT. (2018, August 10). New Zealand becomes the latest country to ban plastic bags. Retrieved March 31, 2019, from https://www.newscientist.com/article/2176417-new-zealand-becomes-the-latest-country-to-ban-plastic-bags/

5. United Nations Environment Programme. (1970, January 01). Marine litter: Trash that kills. Retrieved March 31, 2019, from https://wedocs.unep.org/handle/20.500.11822/9691

6. Kirby, D. (2014, June 30). Ocean Plastic Pollution Costs $13 Billion a Year, and Your Face Scrub Is Part of the Problem. Retrieved March 31, 2019, from http://www.takepart.com/article/2014/06/30/ocean-plastic-pollution-costs-13-billion-year-and-your-face-scrub-part-proble

7. Liittschwager, D., & Liittschwager, D. (2019, January 18). Jellyfish are the ‘snack food’ of the sea-and that’s a good thing. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2019/01/many-ocean-creatures-surprisingly-eat-jellyfish

8. US Department of Commerce, & National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2016, April 13). What are microplastics? Retrieved fromhttps://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/microplastics.html

9. Causes and Effects of Ocean Pollution That Are Destroying Our Planet. (2019, April 09). Retrieved from https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/causes-and-effects-of-ocean-pollution.php

10. Fox, B. (n.d.). Sustainable Seafood. Retrieved April 4, 2019, from https://www.worldwildlife.org/industries/sustainable-seafood

11. N. (2017, May 9). U.S. fishing generated more than $200B in sales in 2015, two stocks rebuilt in 2016. Retrieved April 4, 2019, from https://www.noaa.gov/media-release/us-fishing-generated-more-than-200b-in-sales-in-2015-two-stocks-rebuilt-in-2016

12. US Department of Commerce, & National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2008, October 08). How important is the ocean to our economy? Retrieved April 4, 2019, fromhttps://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/oceaneconomy.html

13. Parker, L. (2018, October 10). Beach clean-up study shows global scope of plastic pollution. Retrieved March 25, 2019, from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2018/10/greenpeace-beach-cleanup-report-highlights-ocean-plastic-problem/

14. Blog. (2014, March 24). Retrieved March 25, 2019, from https://www.planetaid.org/blog/how-ocean-pollution-affects-humans

15. Shows, N. P. (2016, November 21). Home. Retrieved April 28, 2019, from https://earthwiseradio.org/2016/11/why-do-animals-eat-ocean-plastic/

16. Animals Eat Ocean Plastic Because it Smells Like Food. (2016, November 09). Retrieved April 28, 2019, from https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/11/animals-eat-ocean-plastic-because-of-smell-dms-algae-seabirds-fish/

17. Schultz, P., & Reid, S. R. (2009). Executive summary: Litter in america 2009 national litter research findings and recommendations. Retrieved April 28, 2019, from https://www.kab.org/sites/default/files/News&Info_Research_LitterinAmerica_ExecutiveSummary_Final.pdf.


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1 Response to White Paper- Daphneblake

  1. davidbdale says:

    I did a quick Google Scholar search on your behalf, Daphne, and came up with good sources in just a minute, all targeted at solutions to plastic pollution. I’ve posted the top of my search page in your White Paper for your reference.

    In addition, I found cheap books you could easily get your hands on, one of which came up in the Google Search. Here’s the Amazon.com page that listed three such books.

    From the Google Scholar list, the Montreal Protocol looks intriguing, and Forgotten at Sea look very strong. My advice as always is that more research, not more thinking, is the best way to find the narrow topic that begs to be written about. It could easily be something as seemingly trivial as plastic straws. How does a tiny topic become big enough to be worth 3000 words?

    1. You show just how many straws find their way into the ocean.
    2. You demonstrate how dangerous they are in their original state.
    3. You describe how they break down into tiny particles that do even more damage than the intact straws.
    4. You confront the problem that people think the straws are trivial.
    5. You investigate the efforts of environmental advocates and municipalities to reduce the dependence on plastic straws.
    6. You confront the obvious resistance of people who disparage the effort that they are being bullied by tree-huggers more interested in plankton than hard-working diner owners, etc.
    7. You compare the effectiveness of education and discouragement with the effectiveness of legal bans on plastic use.
    8. You do a long-term analysis of the real cost of moving to bio-degradable straws.
    9. You champion the growth of small businesses that produce degradable substitutes for plastics: they could become global providers, creates lots of new jobs, make a profitable American product, generate tax revenues, etc.

    10. See? Even straws are a VERY BIG TOPIC.

    Responding to my Feedback is always a good idea. So is asking for more at any time.


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