Annotated Bibliography – Jon Otero

Associated Press. “FDA Will Take 3 More Months to Review Diet Pill.” Fox News. 10 Apr. 2012. Web.

This article is the most recent publication of Qnexa and its journey to possibly being approved by the FDA as a safe drug to help reduce weight for the obese. The author provides many different views toward Qnexa while appearing to be neutral in its ruling. To those unfamiliar with the drug, it provides a brief history of the drug, its risks and promises, and the history of other similar drugs and the current situation with drugs of its nature. I only intend to use this article for further information on the trustworthiness of Vivus, the manufacture of Qnexa.

Burke, Lora E., and Jing Wang. “Treatment Strategies for Overweight and Obesity.” Journal of Nursing Scholarship 43.4 (2011): 368-75. Web.

This article discusses the solutions that one has when wishing to lose weight. It provides studies and helpful information that concludes that no drug or diet alone effectively alters one’s weight significantly without the aid of exercise and other lifestyle modifications. I intend to use this article to point out that Qnexa is merely a stepping stool for obese people to have a kick start in their journey to lose weight. It only reduces hunger, so ultimately it will be up to the person to do the rest of the work to lose weight.

CBS Staff. “FDA Panel Backs Obesity Pill Qnexa: What Happens Next?” CBSNEWS. 23 Feb. 2012. Web.

This article, written in late February, sheds light on a milestone for Qnexa. The FDA panel backed up Qnexa, which could be a significant advantage for Vivus for the drug’s upcoming trial. The author highlights on the reported benefits of the drug and how successful it has been in not only reducing weight, but also reducing blood pressure. This article discusses the history of the drug with the FDA and why it was previously declined approval. It provides good structure for further research into the drug.

Deitel, Mervyn, Braham Shahi, and Frances H. Deitel. “Effect of Weight Loss in the Morbidly Obese Patient with Severe Disability.” Obesity Surgery 1.4 (1991): 419-21. Web.

The authors of this source reveal the connection between obesity and several disabilities. Showing the statistics of those who were disabled in a multitude of ways, I decided to use this source to effectively combat the idea that excessive weight can just be exercised off. Obese people at this stage aren’t even able to complete most daily functions, hence the disability. Therefor, being able to get a moderate amount of exercise can be quite difficult, if not impossible.

”Fen-Phen” Update (Fenfluramine, Phentermine, Dexfenfluramine).” Web. 08 Mar. 2012.

The FDA discusses the safety of “Fen-Phen” and its ingredients. Fenfluramine was deemed too dangerous as it cause irregular cardiograms and lead to valve damage, so any cocktail including Fenfluramine became banned. The information presented in this source rebuts the false labeling of Phentermine as a harmful drug, which was the primary reason why the FDA failed to approve the drug back in 2010.

Gesta, Stephane, Matthias Blüher, Yuji Yamamoto, Andrew W. Norris, Janin Berndt, Susan Kralisch, Jeremie Boucher, Choy Lewis, and C. R. Kahn. “Evidence for a Role of Developmental Genes in the Origin of Obesity and Body Fat Distribution.“ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 9 Mar. 2006. Web. 12 Apr. 2012.

This article discusses a very complex component to the shaping of one’s body: genetics. It’s partial proof that life-style choices aren’t the only determinants in one’s fat distribution and weight. It goes on to point out how little attention genetics has been given in this dilemma.

Henerson, Lisa. “Safety Is Tricky and Getting Trickier.” Applied Clinical Trials 19.10 (2010): 12. Web.

This article briefly mentions Qnexa in a myriad of other drugs targeting obesity that have been rejected due to safety concern. The author highlights the FDA’s concern over the health of the public, and at the same time she points out the complication of such determining factors. Essentially, the FDA wants test results that will show the long-term effects of Qnexa and any drug for that matter. I intend to use this article to gain insight on the lengthy processes that drugs undergo before actually becoming approved for treatment. It is an older article, so I will be able to conduct more research on contemporary results Vivus has found with Qnexa.

Kennet, G. A., and P. G. Clifton. “New Approaches to the Pharmacological Treatment of Obesity: Can They Break through the Efficacy Barrier?” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 97.1 (2010): 63-83. Web.

This article extensively discusses a majority of the issues and controversies of my topic. It mentions various complicated factors that tie into the prevalence of obesity today, as well as the efficiency of previous weight loss drugs. Most importantly, it reveals results of Qnexa and the known effectiveness of its ingredients and how they target obesity. It concludes that Qnexa definitely does surpass industry standards of efficacy. This article supports the effectiveness and safety of Qnexa.

Knudsen, Nils, Peter Laurberg, Lone B. Rasmussen, Inge Inge Bülow, Hans Perrild, Lars Ovesen, and Torben Jørgensen. “Small Differences in Thyroid Function May Be Important for Body Mass Index and the Occurrence of Obesity in the Population.“ The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. July 2005. Web. 12 Apr. 2012.

Thyroid function is tied to a person’s metabolism. The studies conducted in this article conclude that lack of thyroid production or other thyroid abnormalities are associated with the increased occurrence of obesity. This article is great evidence supporting my idea that chemical imbalances in the body that obviously deviate from what is normal greatly affect how a person metabolizes food. Low metabolism causes energy to be reserved as fat, and overall a lack of energy.

Obesity and Cancer Risk.” National Cancer Institute. Web. 08 Mar. 2012.

The medical article shows the increased rates of different types of cancer for those who are obese. It then discusses how the increased weight correlates to different cancers. I intend to use this article to hone in on the danger of being obese, and how important it is to maintain a weight within a normal range.

Obesity During Pregnancy.” Web. 08 Mar. 2012.

This article discusses the various complications that can arise within a child’s lifetime due to the weight of the mother. Obese mothers carry the risk of predisposing their children to obesity, death, and many more serious complication involving the birthing process. I intend to use this article to show just how dangerous being obese can be for the life of a child. It even predisposes that child to a life of obesity, which is proof that his choices are not the only ones that affect his weight.

Roth, Jeffrey J. “FDA Warns Against Use of Topamax by Women of Childbearing Age.Las Vegas Plastic Surgery. Web. 08 Mar. 2012.

This article reveals the danger of Topamax (Topiramate) to women who are pregnant or expecting. The likelihood of having a child with a cleft palate doubles. Compared to the complications of being obese while pregnant, cleft palates are easily solved with plastic surgery and the increased percentage may be worth it when compared to all of the risks of having a child when obese. I intend to use this article to point out the known dangers of it, and also to show why Vivus has decided to not include pregnant women in their application for approval.

Tanumihardjo, Sherry A., Cheryl Anderson, Martha Kaufer-Horwitz, Lars Bode, Nancy J. Emenaker, Andrea M. Haqq, Jessie A. Satia, Heidi J. Silver, and Diane D. Stadler. “Poverty, Obesity, and Malnutrition: An International Perspective Recognizing the Paradox“ Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Web.

This article is brilliant. It reveals the concept of “overnutrition”, a form of malnutrition that is associated with poverty in which individuals do not receive enough nutritional needs, but over satisfy their caloric needs. People who cannot afford to buy nutritious food suffer from obesity because the available food is packed with unnecessary calories rather than essential daily nutrients. I intend to back up my argument that obesity is not a direct result of mere life-style choices and that people can be severely malnourished while appearing to be significantly overweight.

Thyroid.“ PubMed Health. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 18 Dec. -0001. Web. 12 Apr. 2012.

This article discusses the use of Thyroid as a prescription. Thyroid is prescribed for hypothyroidism, a condition in which not enough thyroid hormone is being produced. Symptoms include weight gain and decreased metabolism, since thyroid is responsible for the metabolization of energy. This article is further evidence that there are conditions that lead to weight gain that are completely unrelated to choice.

What Are the Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity?” – NHLBI, NIH. Web. 08 Mar. 2012.

This article highlights the multitude of health risks that increase as one’s weight rises. It also reveals that those who are overweight and obese have increased risks of dying from all causes. It is just further evidence that obesity can be a major problem within the lives of obese people and that it is dangerous. It causes death. I intend to use this information to point out the dangers of obesity and its confirmed links to other diseases and conditions like heart disease.

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1 Response to Annotated Bibliography – Jon Otero

  1. davidbdale says:

    I like your analysis of these sources and get a clear sense of how you’ll put them to use, Jon.

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